This chapter discusses how human rights impact assessments (HRIAs) have been a centrepiece of Nestlé’s overall human rights due diligence programme, helping the company to know and show that it respects human rights both at the corporate and operations levels. The chapter is based on the 10-year collaboration between Nestlé and the Danish Institute for Human Rights, in developing a HRIA methodology and conducting over a dozen HRIAs in Nestlé’s operations and its supply chains. First, it describes the applied HRIA methodology and how it has evolved and improved over the years. Through three case studies, distinct features of HRIA are provided and key implementation challenges discussed. The chapter concludes with a potential way forward for HRIAs for Nestlé, which could be applicable for the food and beverage sector more widely, or for other companies with complex supply chains.