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Anne-Marie Mohammed, Yanqing Lai, Maria Daskalaki and George Saridakis

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Yanqing Lai

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the influential role of national culture on IHRD strategy, policy and practice in different national and cultural contexts. Situated within an analysis of contingency or fit theory, the relevance of national and cross-cultural difference in HRD theory and practice is explained first. Next, the primary studies examining the value dimensions of culture typologies are compared and contrasted. This is followed by a discussion of the influence of cross-cultural differences in defining and conceptualising HRD. Also, how the sociocultural dimensions shape the development and execution of actual HRD strategy, policies and practices in different national and cultural settings is discussed. Finally, implications for both future IHRD research and practices from a cross-cultural perspective are provided.

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Context, Processes and People

Yanqing Lai, Thomas Garavan and Ronan Carbery

This chapter provide a comprehensive review of IHRD in the context of multinational corporations (MNCs). Situated within the resource-based view and behavioural psychology perspective, the vital importance of IHRD, particularly training and development function, to any multinational organisations is illustrated. Next, the dichotomous debate of convergence–divergence or global–local approach in relation to the adoption of IHRD strategy, policies and practices in various host countries are presented. This is followed by the discussion of the application and implementation of IHRD/training practices in MNCs in relation to both international management groups and employees in host countries. Also, an array of macro- and micro-level contextual factors embrace home nation’s indigenous influence, host country effect and firm-specific attributes are identified to explain the localisation of IHRD policies and practices in MNCs. Finally, the implication for future IHRD research and practices are provided.