This chapter discusses the challenges and future efforts concerning China’s welfare state building. Firstly, the author illustrates the challenges and necessities of improving people’s well-being accompanying economic development and social transformation. Secondly, the author uses a triple dimension framework illustrating how good welfare state building in China in coming decade could be envisioned. Thirdly, the author makes some comparative references to studies of the Nordic welfare model and reflects on the compatibility of the Nordic welfare experience with the experience of China. And, finally, the author compares different characteristics of welfare patterns and instruments in the world, and in this light discusses China’s welfare state building.