Research on climate change and tourism in developing countries has emerged slowly by global standards, despite the economic reliance of many of these countries on tourism. To investigate and quantify the varied threats of climate change to tourism, a robust mixed-method approach is imperative. We critically interrogate three core approaches to climate change and tourism research in the region, exploring challenges in their adoption and opportunities for integrated approaches. Quantitative research is conducted through Tourism Climate Indices (TCI) and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), each of which rely on global risk standards and limited local data. Qualitative research through in-depth interviews with tourism stakeholders and tourists does not face these limitations, yet reflects considerable biases regarding climate change.
Gijsbert Hoogendoorn and Jennifer Fitchett
Dean Hristov and Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon
Grounded in three core paradigms from the mainstream organizational literature _ namely destination management organizations (DMOs) and destinations; leadership and distributed leadership (DL); and network theory and SNA _ this chapter puts forward and discusses a cross-disciplinary, three-phase methodological framework for the study of the enactment and practice of DL in contemporary DMOs.
This chapter outlines a specific method for measuring innovation activities in the tourism industry. It is proposed that the Oslo Manual and Community Innovation Survey can be adapted for a firm-level, tourism sector-specific innovation survey. Additionally, analyses of tourism innovation on the tourism network and systems levels are warranted.
Viraiyan Teeroovengadum and Robin Nunkoo
Sampling is an essential component of the data collection process, which is in turn a vital stage of the research process as a whole. Undeniably, the quality of the sampling design has a strong impact on the overall quality of the research since it contributes to a large extent to the methodological rigour of the study and to the generalisability of the results. In this chapter, we have reviewed the various considerations in a sampling design. These include: defining the target population; selecting the sampling frame; determining the sampling technique; determining the sample size; and executing the sampling plan.
Frederic Dimanche and Lidia Andrades
This chapter addresses some of the main methodological issues that researchers need to address when conducting cross-cultural research. It first discusses the relative paucity of such studies in tourism before pointing out the major barriers to valid studies in cross-cultural contexts. The chapter provides methodological guidelines for students and confirmed researchers willing who investigate cross-cultural issues.
Although ethical issues and challenges in research are numerous, the tourism literature, with the exception of some critical studies, has been mostly silent on this topic. This chapter sets out five core ethical principles, a set of research decisions and related ethical dilemmas that tourism researchers should address, and offers resources for responding to these challenges.
The tourism and hospitality research landscape is constantly evolving and the field is growing in maturity. One of the distinguishing features that dominates this evolution is the proliferation of academic journals. The number of tourism and hospitality journals has increased from less than ten before the 1980s to around 300 in 2017. Within the various articles published in these journals, feature fervent debates on research methodologies and related aspects. Areas of discussion relates to the use of statistical techniques, specific methods related to qualitative, qualitative, and mixed method research and other design aspects of a study. This chapter succinctly summarizes these debates and situates the various contributions that define this handbook within the broader literature in the field.
The chapter reviews some of the key underlying assumptions of positivism. Researchers in the tourism field tend to argue that positivism is the dominant paradigm, but the voice of the interpretivist is getting louder. The notion of objectivity is critically discussed, with the conclusion that it is more appropriate in tourism research to refer to ‘objectivities’ and ‘subjectivities’. The chapter also outlines some of the major criticisms against positivistic research. However, by no means is the era of positivistic research in tourism over. In fact, with ‘big data’, the discipline is now moving into unchartered territory, and as some researchers have argued, there is little justification for tourism researchers to join the anti-positivism fraction at this time. Tourism research has yet to reach the high degree of ‘formalization’ and ‘technicalization’ as in other fields.
This chapter introduces constructionism as a guiding paradigm in tourism research, where reality and knowledge are viewed as constructions, generated through interaction and interpretation. It can help in critiquing social discourses, explaining the process of participants’ knowledge creation, and guiding research that places participants and their experiences as central.
Philip Feifan Xie
This chapter proposes the use of the deterritorialization concept derived from the postmodern theories for tourism research. It is argued that the concept of deterritorialization helps to illuminate the changing patterns of territorial identity and morphological landscape. There are three aims of this chapter. Firstly, it draws on postmodern and poststructuralist theory to delineate deterritorialization as an important method in tourism research. Secondly, it applies critical discourse analysis and in-depth interviews to the Westergasfabriek cultural and recreational park in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, to construct a progressive relationship with respect to tourism development. Thirdly, the chapter strives to be a basis for a new form of research methods in the postmodern era, helping to understand and monitor change in the context of destination identity.