The service product is conceptually abstractand highly subjective. Service quality has been likened to an attitude, thereby making it an epiphenomenon. The phenomenological nature of service necessitates innovative qualitative research tools and approaches to complement mainstream methods. The Sensual Quasi-Q-Sort (SQQS) offer new insights into customer perception of service products.
Martin Trandberg Jensen
This chapter addresses the analytic prospects of audio methods in tourism research. It grows out of a critique of the reliance on textual modes of expression in research, and suggests that sensuous tourism and hospitality scholarship can be strengthened by drawing upon emergent research on soundscapes. Subsequently, the chapter makes three contributions. Firstly, it suggests that the emergence of non-representational theories will inform the development of experimental and multimodal tourism and hospitality research. Secondly, through ethnographic examples the chapter exemplifies how sonic research unfolds in practice, and discusses the analytic insights that come with such engagement with the field. Finally, growing out of this discussion, the chapter outlines a heuristic ‘sonic manifesto’ that supports the application and development of sonic research in future tourism and hospitality research.
Ann Hindley and Xavier Font
Projective techniques have considerable potential to study consumer behaviour and are widely used in commercial market research and psychology, but not in tourism and hospitality research. This chapter demonstrates that tourism and hospitality researchers can collect richer data from smaller samples by using projective techniques, which provide more flexibility and allow the combination of multiple projective methods to triangulate findings. Projective techniques are qualitative methods that reach the subconscious of respondents by asking them to interpret information or complete tasks, which circumvent normative responses that create social desirability bias. Five techniques are outlined: collage, choice ordering, word association, photo elicitation and a scenario expressive technique. The study found that the most successful instrument for reducing social desirability bias was word association, while the least successful was photo-expression. The limitations are the highly resource intensive nature of rigorous analysis, ambiguous stimuli impacting on the complexity of data elicitation and codification, and variations in interpretation of the meaning of the results.
Bill J. Gregorash
This chapter introduces the reader to photo-elicitation and variations that can be used as a research methodology useful for studies that explore understandings with consumers in hospitality and tourism. Included is the personal experience of the author, who used photo-elicitation to research how memories are made within gastronomic events.
This chapter promotes the value of the repertory test technique, also referred to as repertory grid analysis and Kelly’s triads, for eliciting attributes that are important to consumers when they are differentiating a competitive set of brands. Underpinned by personal construct theory, the repertory test is ideal for identifying scale items in the development of destination image questionnaires.
in this chapter, archival Research is presented as an alternative research strategy in qualitative tourism and hospitality research. Its theoretical underpinnings are highlighted; common pitfalls, and tools to avoid these, are presented; and a case study provides a practical research setting. Finally, its rigour and potential methodological contribution are shown.
Jing (Bill) Xu and Mao-Ying Wu
The study in this chapter, using bibliometric analysis, assesses all the tourism journal publications that used netnography in 2005_2015. Netnography is found to be suitable and insightful for studying emerging or niche markets. The role of researchers and the ethical issues required during a netnographic study are specially discussed.
Antonino Mario Oliveri
Using the general categories of the total survey error (TSE) paradigm, this chapter discusses issues related to the construction and administration of structured questionnaires in face-to-face interviewing. The main sources of non-sampling error are discussed, which emerge at this stage in the surveying process, as well as some solutions which can be adopted to control or limit these errors. Examples taken from tourism research are presented.
Sheree-Ann Adams, Davina Stanford and Xavier Font
The study of ethical consumer behaviour decision making (CBDM) is difficult to research, due to social desirability response bias (SDRB) when respondents give responses they consider as socially acceptable, rather than realistic responses. This chapter discusses conjoint analysis (CA) as a method which may overcome these challenges
Adopting a digital image processing method, specifically the colour histogram method, implemented in the red_green_blue (RGB) colour space segments of digital images, this chapter demonstrates an experiment of colour analysis on a destination’s promotional images, and the results visually display the destination’s colour presentation in a histogram format.