The chapter investigates job-switch strategies of graduates from Dutch HEIs residing in core and non-core areas: to what extent are residential and workplace mobility coupled with switches across industrial sectors? Registry data from Statistics Netherlands enables us to track graduation cohorts from seven years before to eighteen years after graduation. Overall, the likelihood of labour-market dynamics varies strongly with the life-phase in which we find graduates. The chapter finds that, like migration, job mobility is not a random event. It occurs, in some cases, repeatedly, to specific groups who appear to operate at the edges of the job-opportunity space. The chapter finds that sector and workplace mobility appear contemporarily positively inter-related, persistent, but also inter-temporally competing. Residential mobility appears somewhat disconnected from labour-market dynamics, although it appears that some wait for a match to come to fruition before changing residences. Mobility is higher across the board for graduates residing in non-core areas, with non-core singles found to be relatively mobile. The chapter demonstrates that it is not the presence of a partner as such that limits spatial mobility, but whether or not he or she is economically active. Controlling for this, and contrary to what is often reported in migration literature, the chapter finds that couples without children, living in non-core areas, are more likely to exhibit residential mobility than singles. They are also more likely to engage in sectoral and workplace mobility. Non-core couples with children are also found to be more likely to engage in residential mobility than singles.
Mika Haapanen and Hannu Karhunen
This chapter studies the link between working while studying and migration. Understanding this link is important because policy-makers are often calling for actions that would cut down the hours students spend on working to shorten the graduation time. The chapter’s analysis focuses on graduates from Finnish universities, polytechnics and vocational schools in 1991–2004. It uses rich register-based longitudinal microdata constructed by Statistics Finland, and find a negative relationship between working while studying and graduate migration. An increase in student employment can thus partly explain the decline in geographic mobility among Finnish graduates from higher education.
Cécile Détang-Dessendre and Virginie Piguet
As in all developed countries, educated French people are concentrated in dense local labour markets. The chapter analyses migration flows using the declarations in the census on previous residential location (five years before) of people aged over five in 2008. It focuses on two populations: 20–64-year-olds to analyse the core of the French active population and 20–29-years-olds to capture youth specificities, distinguishing people with high and low levels of education. The chapter estimates extended gravity models to explain the origin–destination flows of the active population between 288 local labour markets using a zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) model. They provide a picture of the main links between middle- and long-distance flows and local characteristics that play a role in the professional and residential dimensions of migration choices. Migration flows of young educated people are essentially linked with the characteristics of local labour markets, rather than climates and amenities. Amenity variables, in particular climate conditions, also affect migration flows, especially flows of older people. The characteristics of the destination area impact flows of educated people more than flows of less-educated people.
From Research to Practice
Edited by Nicola F. Dotti
Gillian Bristow and Adrian Healy
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the economic crisis that hit European regions from 2007 and which took hold in 2008_09. It introduces the concept of regional economic resilience and outlines the key approach to measuring and assessing regional economic resilience which was developed for this research. This chapter concludes by providing an outline of the organisation and structure of the book, and a summary of its key themes.
This chapter develops an approach for operationalising the concept of regional economic resilience in a cross-comparative analysis of the effects of the 2008_09 economic crisis on European regions. The approach focuses on measuring resilience in terms of post-shock outcomes and adapts available methods for dating regional business cycles to capture differences in both the timing of when the shock hit regions, and the amplitude and duration of the downturns experienced and subsequent recoveries. This analysis highlights that the economic crisis of 2008_09 was not a single event but rather a series of closely connected events that together amounted to a major economic shock. Different places were affected by these events at different times. The business cycle approach adopted for this work is a major innovation in approaches to measuring the resilience of economies to economic shocks, as it allows a more nuanced measurement of the particular response of each region.
Iwona Sagan and Grzegorz Masik
This chapter provides a case study of the Pomorskie region of Poland which exhibited strong resilience to the 2008_09 crisis. The chapter explores the reasons for the region’s economic resilience. The analysis highlights the importance of the relative resilience of the Polish economy as a whole, as well as the diversified economic structure of the Pomorskie region. The analysis also highlights the adaptability associated with the region’s flexible labour force and open society and economy.
Rüdiger Wink, Laura Kirchner, Florian Koch and Daniel Speda
This chapter describes the experiences in the region of Stuttgart during and after the global financial and economic crisis of 2008_09. The region was severely negatively hit by the crisis but achieved a fast recovery, notably by increasing exports to China. While the region faced huge problems to recover after a recession in the early 1990s, by 2014 Stuttgart had reached a new peak of employment. The reasons for this successful recovery are mainly rooted in the competitiveness and innovation capabilities of manufacturing industries and in the region’s institutional thickness. Despite the economic success, however, risks remain when considering the growing dependence of the regional economy on the automotive industry and export demand.