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Antonia Canosa, Anne Graham and Erica Wilson

This chapter draws attention to the lack of research involving children and young people in tourism and hospitality studies, despite the important role young people play in these industries. The chapter presents some of the methodological opportunities to advance child-centred, ethically sound tourism research approaches which respect the dignity and voice of children involved.

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Lisa Ruhanen and Chris Cooper

This chapter provides an overview of the knowledge concept and how knowledge transfer occurs between universities and industry. The inhibitors to successful knowledge transfer in a tourism context are then examined, along with those elements of knowledge transfer that have been successful between researchers and end-users in the tourism industry.

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Edited by Robin Nunkoo

As research in tourism and hospitality reaches maturity, a growing number of methodological approaches are being utilized and, in addition, this knowledge is dispersed across a wide range of journals. Consequently there is a broad and multidisciplinary community of tourism and hospitality researchers whom, at present, need to look widely for support on methods. In this volume, researchers fulfil a pressing need by clearly presenting methodological issues within tourism and hospitality research alongside particular methods and share their experiences of what works, what does not work and where challenges and innovations lie.
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Faizan Ali, Woody G. Kim and Cihan Cobanoglu

Theory building in business research requires analytical accuracy and sophistication in research methods (Sarstedt et al., 2014). Nonetheless, the significance of newer analytical methods depends on the researcher’s willingness to learn, adopt, and apply them within the research process (Zahra and Sharma, 2004). A review of the literature shows that traditionally empirical studies in hospitality research used only basic statistical techniques. For instance, Line and Runyan (2012) reviewed the hospitality marketing research published in four top hospitality journals from 2008 to 2010. They stated that among 274 articles published, 103 (37.5 per cent) used some type of descriptive and multivariate analysis (for example, descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, regression, or factor analysis). However, Line and Runyan (2012) also stated that more recently an increase in the usage of advanced statistical tools including structural equation modelling (SEM) can be observed. These findings are confirmed by Yoo et al. (2011) in their assessment of empirical articles published in four top hospitality journals during 2000 and 2009. They revealed that out of a total of 570 empirical studies, 254 (44.5 per cent) of the articles used descriptive analytical methods such as descriptive statistics, t-tests, and cross-tabulation. Not only hospitality, but also other important academic fields such as marketing (Babin et al., 2008), family business research (Sarstedt et al., 2014), operations management (Peng and Lai, 2012), and tourism (Nunkoo et al., 2013) have observed a recent rise in the usage of sophisticated and rigorous quantitative methodologies. Amongst these methodologies, SEM is the most commonly applied method across a variety of academic disciplines such as strategic management, marketing, and psychology over the last few years (Astrachan et al., 2014; Chin et al., 2008; Hair et al., 2011). Lei and Wu (2007) stated that SEM characterizes an advanced version of general linear modelling procedures and is applied to examine whether ‘a hypothesized model is consistent with the data collected to reflect [the] theory’ (ibid., p. 34). In simple terms, SEM is a multivariate analytical tool that is used to test and estimate causal and/or hypothetical relationships among the variables concurrently (Astrachan et al., 2014). Its ability to allow statistical inspection of the relationships among theory-based variables and simultaneously employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and linear regression models has contributed to its widespread application (Hair et al., 2014a). However, this argument holds true for covariance-based SEM (CB-SEM) and not for the partial least squares-based SEM (PLSSEM). CB-SEM is the most extensively applied approach of SEM and therefore many scholars refer to it as SEM (Astrachan et al., 2014). However, Hair et al. (2014b) refer to this argument as naive because PLS-SEM is an advantageous and increasingly applied method to assess structural equation models in different disciplines, including marketing, information systems, strategic management, tourism, and so on (Hair et al., 2012b; Hair et al., 2012a; Ringle et al., 2012). Yet, its use in hospitality research remains at an early stage of development (Ali et al., 2018) where its application is much lower as compared to its application in other disciplines including marketing, management information systems (MIS) and strategic management (see Figure 29.1).

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Girish Prayag

Mixed-methods research has been labelled as the ‘third movement’ after the quantitative and qualitative movements in the social sciences. While tourism and hospitality studies are increasingly adopting this approach, researchers continue to mix methods rather than methodologies. This chapter critically evaluates mixed methods research and offers researchers some guidelines on how to design such studies. The method versus paradigm debate surrounding mixed methods is reviewed, and issues of independence, timing and status pertinent to designing mixed methods studies are discussed. The chapter concludes with a pertinent observation that until researchers are trained to understand and appreciate both qualitative and quantitative methods and methodologies, the quality of mixed methods studies in tourism will not improve.

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Leanne White

This chapter examines how semiotics, structuralism and content analysis – key qualitative and quantitative research methodologies – can be applied to research in the discipline areas of tourism and hospitality. The strengths and weaknesses of these three approaches are examined in this chapter, along with a discussion about how the methodologies can be incorporated into tourism research.

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José F. Molina-Azorin, Xavier Font, María D. López-Gamero, Jorge Pereira-Moliner, Eva M. Pertusa-Ortega and Juan J. Tarí

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the main characteristics and benefits of mixed methods. The chapter aims to help tourism scholars to become more familiar with this approach, providing the literature base and examining two key aspects: why and how to use mixed methods. Several examples of mixed methods works in tourism are examined.

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C. Michael Hall

The concept of content analysis has evolved over time, and the approach can be used as a research tool in its own right or in combination with other methods. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis are complementary approaches that are increasingly integrated in software based in big data analysis. Content analysis also provides the basis for systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

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Sandra De Urioste-Stone, William J. McLaughlin, John J. Daigle and Jessica P. Fefer

The chapter provides an introduction to the case study research methodology and illustrates the process of conducting case studies in the tourism field. Three methodological stages are discussed _ planning, conducting, and communicating results from case study research _ along with examples of projects conducted by the authors in diverse settings and range of tourism topics.

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Elizabeth T. Coberly and Susan L. Slocum

‘Serious leisure’ is used to describe freely chosen recreational activities that have similar characteristics to a career. They follow a defined path progressing from introduction to mastery, and through serious leisure, people find social support, a sense of accomplishment, and engagement. Studying serious leisure has proven challenging, but several research methods have emerged. Some are preferred for identifying and measuring serious leisure, and others for understanding the behaviour and motivations of those who practice a serious leisure pursuit. Using Renaissance festivals as a form of serious leisure, this chapter highlights the most frequently chosen research methods: ethnography, experience sampling modelling (ESM), grounded theory, and the Serious Leisure Inventory and Measure (SLIM). Strengths, weaknesses and outcomes are highlighted.