Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger R. Stough
Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Börje Johansson, Kiyoshi Kobayashi and Roger R. Stough
Myths, Visions and Realities
Edited by Marina van Geenhuizen and Peter Nijkamp
Edited by Jordi Suriñach, Rosina Moreno and Esther Vayá
Edited by Philip Cooke, Mario Davide Parrilli and José Luis Curbelo
Spatial Dynamics in the Urban Century
Edited by Karima Kourtit, Peter Nijkamp and Roger R. Stough
Jana Schmutzler, Marcela Suarez, Alexandra Tsvetkova and Alessandra Faggian
This introductory chapter synthesizes the arguments presented by the book contributors and argues that a broad definition of innovation systems is appropriate in the context of developing and transition countries. By weaving in specific examples from the chapters, the introduction demonstrates the importance of a context-specific approach that takes into account sociocultural context, macroeconomic structures and institutions. Taken as a whole, the book shows how the system level of National Innovation Systems (NIS) influences the way firms and other actors build up competences and learn, while the outcomes of interactions among these actors at the micro level shape the NIS environment.
Miklos Lukacs de Pereny
Since the Industrial Revolution, developing countries have tried to catch up with those successful in making the transition from decreasing to increasing return economies. However, at the turn of the new millennium, industrialization has been replaced by the rationale of innovation. This paradigm shift is not alien to the Latin American governments that, during the past 15 years, have actively supported the creation of National Innovation Systems (NISs) to upgrade their technological and research and development capabilities. This chapter reviews the efforts undertaken by the Peruvian government. A historic-analytical assessment is provided for the 1968–2015 period to describe and explain the main institutional and organizational trajectories shaping Peru’s NIS construction. Special attention is paid to the political and economic contexts and transitions, which have limited NIS construction and governance. Conclusions show that although significant macroeconomic progress has been achieved since implementation of free market reforms in the 1990s, a healthy macroeconomic environment alone is an insufficient condition for setting up an integrated, coordinated and well-performing innovation system.