Achieving Peak Performance
Edited by Cary L. Cooper and Ronald J. Burke
Individual Wellbeing and Career Experiences
Edited by Ronald J. Burke, Kathryn M. Page and Cary Cooper
Edited by Luo Lu and Cary Cooper
Carianne M. Hunt and Sandra L. Fielden
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter reviews a wide range of literature on the “sandwich generation.” Women and men in the sandwich generation are caregivers to their young and older children as well as to one or both parents while managing their own household and work responsibilities. Sandwiched individuals report high levels of stress – physical, emotional and financial. Most sandwiched people are in their 50s and 60s. The sandwich generation is projected to grow dramatically over the next 30 years. Employed caregivers need to make work-related adjustments to undertake care. One response is to work fewer hours. Women undertake more caregiving than do men. The sandwich generation is a worldwide phenomenon with wide country differences in the levels and types of support available to caregivers. The caregiving relationship is complex, involving gender of caregiver, parents and parents-in-law, ethnic differences, resident versus non-resident caregivers, and changes in the relationship over time, sometimes involving Alzheimer’s and dementia. But there are benefits to caregivers as well, including improved relationships, using skills and developing new skills, and generously giving to another. Organizations need to address increases in caregiving among their employees and develop policies and initiatives that support these valued employees. Examples of such initiatives are described. There is also a need at the country level to integrate employees, communities, employers, businesses and levels of government to deal with this increasing trend. Key words: definition of sandwich generation, strains and benefits of caregiving, organizational challenges, supportive organization and government interventions.
Shelley I. White-Means
An aging population having more chronic health conditions and a lower fertility rate will increase challenges to informal caregivers, perhaps more so in the sandwich generation, as older and younger generations will put pressure on caregivers. The author, using research data, compares sandwiched with non-sandwiched caregivers, in a large U.S. database, on personal demographics, caregiving time, types of care provided, labor force participation and accommodation, perceived burden, quality of life, and employment burden. She reports both similarities and differences between these two groups. Being sandwiched, however, is associated with more financial strain, but similar levels of burden, physical strains, and emotional stresses. It may be that, in both groups, caring for others is seen as a “labor of love.” Organizational support lessened some of these consequences. Societies face challenges as the need for caregivers increases while the supply diminishes. Key words: caregiver challenges, sandwiched versus non-sandwiched caregivers, future societal caregiving challenges.
Nancy Mandell and Ann H. Kim
The lengthening of the life course and the rise in the number of older immigrant adults in Canada have given rise to different patterns of intergenerational relations within older family units. Defined as ‘ties between individuals or groups of different ages’, intergenerational family relationships include all the ways in which family members both give and receive financial, instrumental and emotional care and support for one another. The emergence of complex emotional relations, diverse family structures, interdependent family roles and unanticipated extensions of caregiving into old age represent issues generated in response to global structural patterns. Along with greater complexity, diversity and interdependence among family members, we are witnessing the rise of intergenerational ambivalence. Key words: intergenerational relations, ageing families, intergenerational ambivalence, older immigrants, financial, instrumental and emotional care and support for older adults.
Sheila M. LoboPrabhu and Victor A. Molinari
There are 5.3 million persons in the United States who have Alzheimer’s disease. In 2014, friends and family of those with Alzheimer’s and other dementias provided an estimated 17.9 billion hours of unpaid care, valued at $217.7 billion. Caregivers can be classified into formal and informal caregivers. In this chapter, the demographics of caregiving, impact of caregiving on the caregiver, care of the caregiver, and ethical aspects of caregiving are discussed. Social supports for the caregiver are essential to caregiver health and well-being. The chapter ends with a discussion of caregiver training and support designed to enhance the quality of caregiving, as well as to provide emotional support to caregivers in their noble, yet arduous, task of providing long-term care to persons with dementia. Key words: Alzheimer’s, dementia, caregiving, caregiver, support.
Claire E. Greaves, Stacey L. Parker, Hannes Zacher and Nerina L. Jimmieson
Owing to an aging population, as well as delays to childbirth, a growing number of employees are providing informal care to both children and frail family members. There are a number of ways employees leverage their resources to manage their competing work and family caregiving responsibilities, and to protect their well-being. To better understand how resources are utilized in this context, the authors present a taxonomy of resource effects that categorizes different ways resources can combine to protect employee well-being. Moreover, in this chapter they describe potential explanatory mechanisms of different resource effects and offer boundary conditions for resource interactions. This chapter consolidates and reviews empirical studies that have examined different resource combinations in the work and caregiving literature, and identifies a number of resource effects, including resource buffering, resource gain and loss, resource spirals, and two types of resource interactions—boosting and compensation. Limitations and directions for future research are identified, to develop the field further. Key words: caregiving, eldercare, childcare, resources, work–family conflict, work–family enrichment, well-being.
Hannes Zacher, Cort W. Rudolph and Claudia Reinicke
In this chapter, we review, integrate, and discuss research on objective and perceived organizational support for employees with caregiving responsibilities, and associated experiences of work–family conflict, strain, and well-being among these employees. We focus on employees with childcare responsibilities, eldercare responsibilities, or both (the sandwich generation). Organizational support refers to instrumental, socioemotional, or informational help provided by an organization, which often surfaces in the form of specific policies, practices, and procedures. Organizational support may: directly affect employee experiences of work–family conflict, strain, and well-being; buffer the effects of caregiving demands on these experiences; or interact with caregiving demands, individual differences, and/or contextual characteristics in predicting experiences. We conclude by outlining directions for future research and implications for organizational practice. Key words: caregiving, childcare, eldercare, organizational support.