In their introduction to the book Career Dynamics in a Global World: Indian and Western Perspectives, the authors ask: do Western career concepts and practices interfere with our understanding of careers in other parts of the world? They identify four drivers behind the evolution of careers today – globalization, culture, convergence-divergence and gender roles – and describe how different combinations of these drivers give rise to a range of topics on which Indian and Western perspectives can be compared. Those topics – on self and career, social entrepreneurship as a career choice, stepping off the career ladder, MBA careers across the globe, breaking and re-entry, academic careers, careers in IT and opting out or staying in – provide the titles of each part of the book under which one Indian and one Western chapter are presented. Readers are invited to more deeply appreciate the career phenomena involved, as well as the challenges in seeking to move from research to practice.
Anupama Kondayya and Srinivas Ekkirala
For over a century, the choice of individual careers has been driven by the person–environment fit paradigm, which posits that higher fit or congruence between a person’s preferences and abilities and their work environment is desirable. However, in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) world, individuals are advised to develop adaptability, versatility and flexibility to deal with the changing environment. Specifically, career variety has been highlighted as a way to develop adaptability. This challenges notions of fit and congruence. Moreover, the ancient Indian science of Ayurveda suggests that pursuing a fit between preferences and environments leads to imbalance in the mind–body complex of the individual, and one must seek balance through incongruence for well-being. Combining these perspectives, the authors make the case for an incongruence-driven approach to career planning, to allow individuals to achieve overall well-being and health while tending to the demands of a constantly changing environment.
This chapter explores the (mainly Western) literature on the role of self-awareness for career development. In the first part of this book chapter, the author explores the main conceptualizations of self-awareness in existing career theories. She continues by examining the empirical literature on the benefits and risks for people’s career development associated with self-awareness. Finally, she reflects on the malleability of this important career competence.
Preeti Tiwari, Anil K. Bhat and Jyoti Tikoria
The objective of this study is to identify the role and robustness of social entrepreneurial education, social entrepreneurial self-efficacy, empathy and moral obligation in predicting social entrepreneurial intentions. A 37-item questionnaire was answered by 200 nascent social entrepreneurs who are engaged in executing a new business idea and enrolled in universities in India. Perceived feasibility was found to be the strongest predictor of social entrepreneurial intention followed by empathy. Through this study the authors aim to address two major weaknesses in the current literature on social entrepreneurship: the limited scope of student samples used in most of the research studies, and the lack of empirical studies that attempt to translate social entrepreneurial intentions into behaviour. This chapter addresses conceptual and methodological issues associated with analysing the intention–behaviour relationship.
Mary Conway Dato-on, Sharmistha Banerjee and Yasmin Mesbah
The goal of the chapter is to explore factors that determine social entrepreneurial intentions, thus driving individuals to pursue social entrepreneurship as a career choice. In particular, the research investigates the factors of entrepreneurial self-efficacy, collective self-efficacy, empathy and moral obligation as predictors of social entrepreneurial intentions. To achieve the stated objective, the research surveys students and social entrepreneurs in the United States. Results illustrate that while higher entrepreneurial and collective self-efficacy drive social entrepreneurial intentions, empathy and moral obligation have no effect on individuals pursuing social entrepreneurship as a career. Furthermore, the results revealed that those with no prior experience held stronger social entrepreneurial intentions than did those who had prior experience. The findings provide course development insights for social entrepreneurship educators as well as an empirical foundation for further research on social entrepreneurial intentions.
Sumita Datta and Snehal Shah
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the underlying processes that influence career development choices made by women managers at various life stages. Based on 31 in-depth interviews of Indian women managers, the authors aimed to discover the latent cognitive-affective mechanisms that influence their career choices. The data analysis revealed rich insights about how lived experiences of macro-level antecedent factors as well as supply- and demand-side factors juxtapose to influence satisficing career choices as well as perceived well-being of women managers. The study contributes by developing an emergent conceptual model that elucidates the way in which perceived interlinkages amongst these constructs serve to reconcile the apparent paradox of career and family identities. The findings of this study call for novel organizational models that can support women professionals create their own unique career identities across life stages.
Angela Stephanie Mazzetti
Despite a growing number of professional women in the workplace and a range of legislative changes to both tackle discrimination and encourage organizations to adopt more family-friendly working practices, the number of women in senior positions is still surprisingly low. Drawing on the findings of a wider visual timelines study of career transitions, this chapter provides an insight into the career shocks experienced by four women preceding their decisions to ‘step off’ the career ladder and therefore interrupt their progress to more senior positions. Applying the lens of conservation of resources theory, this chapter puts forward recommendations to support women incorporating career shocks into their personal career development planning and also to support organizations incorporating career shocks into their talent retention planning.