This chapter focuses on human resource management (HRM) in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean regions. In a systematic review of extant literature, the authors describe how national (economic, linguistic, historical, and cultural) characteristics have so far fostered research in certain HRM subfunctions. The authors identify research gaps and make a plea for more systematic documentation of this under-researched region of the world.
Sergio M. Madero-Gómez and Miguel R. Olivas-Luján
This chapter argues that extant insights into South American human resource management (HRM) derived from cross-cultural approaches could be enhanced by integrating comparative institutional perspectives. This insightful chapter lays out opportunities and challenges for integrating comparative institutional approaches into HRM research in South America. A primary contribution is an identification of five core issues common to comparative institutional approaches and that are particularly relevant to HRM research in the South American context.
Chris Brewster, Wolfgang Mayrhofer and Paul Sparrow
This chapter examines the ways in which Western Europe is different from other regions in the world identifying particularly differences in approaches to stakeholders, the role of government and employee involvement as crucial. The authors discuss differences within Europe and the various cultural and institutional clusters that have been proposed. The chapter sets this within developments in globalisation but notes that the economic crisis that began in 2008, and the UK’s Brexit vote and the election of Donald Trump in the USA, have all raised questions about the ‘inevitability’ of globalisation. The authors conclude that human resource management (HRM) in Europe is likely to remain different from that in the other parts of the world, and the regions within Europe are unlikely to become more standardised in their approach to HRM.
Michael J. Morley, Dana Minbaeva and Snejina Michailova
Many of the countries of Central & Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have pursued aggressive development trajectories since the early 1990s with varying economic, political, and human resource management (HRM) outcomes. Arising from a review of nomothetic and idiographic studies on HRM in these countries, the authors landscape some key idiosyncratic features at play in the region and chart core aspects of the development of HRM. They question the extent to which ‘Western’ theories and ‘best practices’ can be applied to the territory, or whether there is evidence of a unique or hybrid approach to HRM emerging. They conclude that knowledge of HRM in the region remains exploratory at best, and encourage future empirical research.
Pawan Budhwar and Kamel Mellahi
This chapter considers the impact on human resource management (HRM) of the major socio-political, economic, and security-related developments that have taken place in the Middle East and which are still unfolding. Particular attention is paid to the dominance of the Arab culture and of Islam in the region, whereby HRM systems are strongly governed by these principles. The authors contend that due to significant differences between the Middle East and other parts of the world (the ‘West’, in particular), foreign elements of management tend to be, at best, not conducive to the development of sound HRM practices in the region. They also caution that apparent similarities across the region are masking deep-set differences between nations.
David B. Zoogah, Elham Kamal Metwally and Tarek Tantoush
This chapter reviews historical, institutional, governance, business environment, competitiveness, human development, and demographic factors influencing human resource management (HRM) in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia. Based on case studies, examples are provided of how reactions to similar contexts can produce very different strategic HRM outcomes. The authors conclude with a discussion of the implications and challenges of HRM research in Northern Africa given the paucity of research in the region.
Christine Bischoff and Geoffrey Wood
This chapter draws from a small but growing body of human resource management (HRM) research in Africa. Increasing attention is being paid to contextual circumstances, with attention shifting to the relationship between institutions and HRM practice, particularly drawing on the literature on comparative capitalisms and rational hierarchical accounts. This chapter further extends reflections on cultural and institutional factors influencing HRM in the sub-Saharan Africa region, including an exploration of the emerging body of research on Chinese multinational corporations in Africa.
Pawan Budhwar, Arup Varma and Manjusha Hirekhan
This chapter presents the geographical and socio-economic context of the Indian subcontinent and discusses how relevant factors influence human resource management (HRM) practice in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan (including updated insights on each of these countries). The review of extant research emphasises the scarcity of HRM research across the region, and in particular a reliance on exploring the applicability of Western practice rather than understanding indigenous practice. Given the political and economic instability across much of this region, the authors note that this gives rise to major challenges for rapidly evolving HRM systems, where strategic HRM has yet to be recognised as a source of value for organisations.
Ngan Collins, Ying Zhu and Malcolm Warner
This chapter examines the relationship between economic reform and changes in the employment relationship in three Asian socialist economies: China and Vietnam, both in a ‘transitional’ stage; and North Korea, which has yet to open itself up to the forces of globalization. The authors explore the comparable and contrasting experiences of each country, examining the employment relations and human resource management (HRM) systems. This chapter includes data about the recent changes regarding managing the ‘new generation’ of employees and developing a new status quo in people management at both societal and firm levels.
Philippe Debroux, Wes Harry, Shigeaki Hayashi, Heh Jason Huang, Keith Jackson and Toru Kiyomiya
This chapter explores human resource management (HRM) in three countries that share common geographic (East Asia) and economic (embracing capitalism) features, despite considerable differences in their ethnic and cultural make-up. The chapter presents reviews of each country’s typical approach to HRM explained by the increasingly (financially and politically) challenging contextual settings, including a new discussion on workplace diversity (and discrimination) management.