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Suthawan Sathirathai and Edward B. Barbier

discount rate. 1. APPENDIX Using data and information from the work of Lynne et al. (1981) which studied the relationship of natural marsh to the economic productivity of blue crab on Florida’s Gulf Coast, Ellis and Fisher (1987) developed a static optimization model using a Cobb–Douglas relationship to represent production of blue crab. The cost-minimization problem faced by a price-taking fishing industry is min L = cE + l(X–mEaAb), E – (11A.1) – where E is human effort as measured by the number of crab traps set; A is coastal wetland area in acres, which is

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Ruangrai Tokrisna

density, relying on mainly ready-mixed feed. Semi-intensive and extensive farms were found only in Muang District of Nakhon Si Thammarat (10 farms). Semi-intensive farms were shrimp farms with a low stocking density, relying on natural larvae while stocking as an addition to natural feed abundance. Semi-intensive farms used some ready-mixed feed at a lower rate than the intensive farms. They were usually those farms that had been lost to disease. After a while, when the environmental conditions were better, owing to the decrease in numbers of shrimp farms in the area

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Wattana Sugunnasil and Suthawan Sathirathai

10. Coastal communities, mangrove loss and shrimp farming: social and institutional perspectives Wattana Sugunnasil and Suthawan Sathirathai BACKGROUND When natural resources such as mangroves are depleted at an alarming rate, it is obviously a question of mismanagement. As in the case of terrestrial forests in Thailand, mangroves are under the jurisdiction of the state through the care of the Royal Forestry Department (RFD). However, in practice, local coastal communities play significant roles in the use and management of the resources. This chapter will

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Edward B. Barbier and Suthawan Sathirathai

analysis of a cross-section of 89 countries containing mangroves, the chapter was able to provide evidence that mangrove loss globally is associated with expansion of aquaculture production and primary-sector (that is, agricultural) activities more generally. In particular, low and middle-income economies, such as Thailand and other rapidly developing tropical countries, that are expanding aquaculture production and are dependent on resource-based economic development generally for current growth, tend to have high rates of coastal mangrove conversion. Part I of this

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Shunsuke Managi and Shinji Kaneko

11. 1 Energy supply-side and demandside effects INTRODUCTION Over the past two decades, the energy intensity of China’s economy has fallen rapidly at a rate unparalleled in any other country at a similar stage of industrialization (Fisher-Vanden et al., 2004; Wu et al., 2005). After 1996, the income elasticity of energy consumption even shifted from positive to negative, accompanied by an unprecedented decline in energy-related CO2 emissions. This shift was contrary to all previous forecasts, which predicted that China’s energy consumption and CO2 emissions

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Edward B. Barbier and Mark Cox

economic influences may also affect mangrove conversion across countries. To represent these possible exogenous influences, we extended our data set for estimating (1.9) to include several additional variables. These were population density, rural population density, the percentage of the total labor force in agriculture, agricultural raw material exports as a percentage of total merchandise exports, total debt service (as a percentage of exports) and the real rate of interest. The source of all these variables was World Bank (1998). Estimation approach Given that our

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Shunsuke Managi and Shinji Kaneko

a much higher rate, for a given technology. On the other hand, there are two mechanisms of increasing returns that are innovations in pollution abatement technologies and learning curve mechanisms. The technologies are unlikely to have remained constant in the time period surveyed and therefore we control this technological change factor by an additional variable. Thus, the remaining possibility is the learning curve mechanism. If the production function follows an initially accelerated S-shaped learning curve in the study periods, we are able to observe

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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

Preface For more than 15 years China has maintained a breathtaking rate of economic growth, averaging almost 10 per cent per annum. This growth has propelled China’s energy demand to the point where a country that was a net exporter of oil in the 1970s cannot now meet its domestic needs from its own natural resources. Indeed, today’s price of a barrel of oil ($60+) is attributed by some, perhaps unfairly, to the unanticipated demands that China has been making on the world oil market in recent years. China is a country that in some respects is today not unlike

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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

.5 billion has been suggested for 2010. At these rates of extraction, considerable further investment in survey and exploration work will be needed if the reserves:output ratio is to be held at comfortable levels. Transportation of natural gas in the Sichuan Basin relies heavily on a trunk pipeline some 1000 km in length. This major pipeline forms a ring circuit that connects the major fields with the centres of consumption and processing in the cities. This circuit in turn supports a maze of smaller distributive pipelines totalling 10 000 km in length. Approximately 60 per

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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

local oil royalty rate, which has made it the richest of all American states measured in terms of local fiscal revenue. At present, the Xinjiang government benefits from oil and gas development only through the local tax on production-sharing agreements involving foreign companies. There is no parallel to the Alaskan royalty payments, which would of course greatly increase the capacity of the local administration to stimulate economic development. Moreover, under the State Council regulations for the protection of petroleum and natural gas pipelines, the Chinese central