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Joseph C.H. Chai and Kartik Roy

labour, all of which mediate the interaction of demand and supply. In many instances, the environmental problems can be traced directly to the failure of such institutions as property rights, contract systems and state apparatus. The denudation and destruction of natural forests are primarily due to the failure of the system of property rights in natural forests and rule of land tenure for disturbed forests. Throughout the tropics in the developing world, the central governments have appropriated property rights to vast areas of forest from local people. About 80 per

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Wahiduddin Mahmud

of the above tariff reforms is the end-use-based discrimination in protective duty rates. Capital goods and primary commodities are subject to much lower rates of tariffs compared with intermediate goods, while the highest rates apply to finished consumer goods.33 This has helped to retain relatively high rates of protection for the later goods even within the much lower average import tariffs; at the same time, the antiexport bias of the tax system is reduced because of lower taxes on imported inputs. Such a system of tariff escalation has suited the interest of the

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Douglas H. Brooks and Jayant Menon

concept of the effective rate of protection. With this formulation, comparing the height of different trade cost barriers allows a rough ranking of priorities in terms of potential soft infrastructure interventions. Investment in infrastructure is expensive and its realization is relatively slow. Suppliers and operators of infrastructure facilities share a long-term commitment to the host country. Their mutual interest in success leads An overview 5 them to support a favourable business environment. Ideally, this can translate into a virtuous circle of increased

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Ramesh Chandra and Rajiv Kumar

result of the liberalization policies of the past two decades. Traditionally, in line with prevailing mainstream development thinking, South Asia as a region followed an inward-looking import substitution development strategy that favored domestic production and discriminated against exports. This strategy involved not only industrialization behind high tariff walls, but also direct controls in the form of import and industrial licensing. Exchange rates were generally overvalued and interest rates suffered from financial repression. There was undue governmental

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Joseph C.H. Chai and Kartik Roy

output per capita Coal, kg Pig iron, kg Crude steel, kg Cotton spindles, units Cement, kg 8. Railroad, km per million population 9. Electric power, kw per capita 10. Literacy rate 11. Primary school enrolment 12. Tertiary students per 100 000 population 567 58 537 0.5 272 84 96 2.8 2 0.01 4 43 0.005 20 49 330 Sources: Chen and Galenson 1969, p. 35; Maddison 2001, p. 304; SSB 1985, pp. 143 and 171; Weisskopf 1980, pp. 54, 81 and 82; World Bank 1983a, p. 43. Apart from modern industry, India was also well ahead of China in terms of modern infrastructure development

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Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

of floating exchange rates and tightened monetary and fiscal policies. By contrast, Malaysia followed an independent route. It imposed controls on capital flows, fixed the ringgit to the US dollar and lowered the interest rate. Efforts by the government to stimulate the economy from mid-1998 succeeded in generating a high average growth rate of 7.2 per cent during the period 1999–2000. Despite the unprecedented uncertainty in the global economy, as well as uncertainties arising from wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome

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Ronald Dore and D. Hugh Whittaker

. That unconscious view of history tends in some way or other to colour our perceptions of social and political issues, be they matters of education policy, policies towards crime, the danger of war or the possibilities of strengthening the United Nations. Perhaps it has to do with basic personality tendencies towards gloomy pessimism or cheerful optimism; at any rate most people are, one might say instinctively, history-as-decline theorists, history-as-cycles theorists or history-as-evolution theorists. For example, one frequently hears people in Britain describe

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Christopher Edmonds and Manabu Fujimura

developed economies (LDEs) can hinder development of disaggregated CGE models – particularly multi-country CGE models involving numerous LDEs. The second category includes econometric analyses on measures of regional integration as one of the explanatory variables and selected economic outcomes as dependent variables. When trade flow is the chosen dependent 146 Implementation and impacts of regional infrastructure variable, gravity models offer a natural framework for such analysis. This approach is advantageous in terms of the flexibility it allows in model specification

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Colin G. Brown

as stocking rates and grassland regulations, the State rarely does so. This is because of the logistics and costs involved and the unwillingness to impose burdens on or interfere in the immediate interests of local minority households. However the enforcement of relevant laws and policies can play a role in checking the inappropriate pursuit of local objectives that compromise the sustainable development of the grasslands or the strategic interest of the State. In recognition of this the State has signalled its intention to play a stronger role through

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Bambang Brodjonegoro and Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

revenue sharing rates for natural resource taxes are shown in Table 8.1. Table 8.1 Natural resources revenue sharing scheme (in percent of total revenues collected) Item 3 6 16 16 16 16 – 6 12 64 32 64 32 – 6 12 0 32 0 32 – Central government Provincial government Resourceproducing local government Other local governments in the same province All local governments in Indonesia (equal share) – – – – – – 80 162 Oil LNG Mining: Land rent Mining: Royalty Forestry: Land rent Forestry: Resources Provision Fishery 85 70 20 20 20 20 20 Source: Law No. 25/1999 and