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Douglas H. Brooks

production networks. As Tham Siew Yean, Evelyn Devadason and Loke Wai Heng point out in Chapter 6, foreign firms’ interest in Malaysia as a key link in global supply chains has been sharpened by the country’s competitive locational advantages, which in turn are closely linked to its infrastructure development and resulting high-quality services. Institutional infrastructure at the macroeconomic level, in the form of exchange rate regime, has also played an important role. The chapter on Malaysia illuminates the role of infrastructure in attracting export-oriented FDI

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Somboon Siriprachai

Plaza Accord of September 1985, the currencies of the Asian NIEs, except that of Hong Kong, appreciated vis-à-vis the US dollar, which was substantial against the deutsche- Thailand 139 mark, and became more so against the yen. This immensely benefited the Thai economy to the extent that export-promotion policies became effective due to the devaluation of the baht against the US dollar, as the Thai baht was closely tied to the dollar. Hence, the year 1985 was a turning point for the Thai economy. Also, the external environment became better; interest rates and oil

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Emmanuel S. de Dios and Geoffrey M. Ducanes

performance. Even the most basic growth theories will suggest that an economy’s level of maturity, as captured for example by per capita income, will affect its rate of investment.1 Wide differences in investment outcomes have been noted in Table 2.1. Such growth potential and trajectories also will differ depending on resource endowments, the size of internal markets, and other factors. Beyond this, however, the nature of investing actors themselves will differ across countries, as will the factors, both narrowly economic and financial as well as institutional, that

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Pradeep Srivastava

9. The role of community preferences in targeting the rural poor: evidence from Uttar Pradesh Pradeep Srivastava INTRODUCTION Despite sustained high growth rates over the past two decades, India still accounts for a large proportion of the world’s poor, with almost 360 million people living below the poverty line. The country also has a long tradition of targeting poverty alleviation, including government provided services in critical areas such as health and education for the poor. In addition, over the past several decades, the government has also attempted

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John Asafu-Adjaye and Renuka Mahadevan

favoured nation tariff reductions (Lee et al., 2008). Others such as Krueger (1999), Lawrence (1996) and Krishna (2003) argue that natural trading partners based on geographical proximity in an RTA do not necessarily produce a net trade creation effect when neighbours have similar endowments. Lee et al. (2008) on the other hand warn that trade gain is much larger for duplicate RTAs than for expansionary RTAs while net tradecreating effects are substantially lower for countries participating in overlapping RTAs due to the possibility of the ‘spaghetti bowl’ phenomenon.4

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Bert Hofman and Kai Kaiser

, regions such as West Lampung or the regency of Grobogang in West Java have barely one-tenth of Jakarta’s per capita income. Similarly, about 10 percent of the students in Sambang, East Java make it into senior high school, while over 85 percent of the young in North Tanapuli on Sumatera do so. Resource-rich regions such as Aceh Utara, Riau and East Kalimantan would by themselves be some of the major oil-exporting countries in the world, while other regions such as NTB remain predominantly agricultural. Such diversity in geography, culture, natural and human resource

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Bryan K. Ritchie

general and specific components, then in a competitive labor market the individual would find it in her best interest to invest in acquiring general skills, and both the firm and the individual would find it in their interest to share the cost of acquiring specific skills. All that would remain is for the individual and the firm to negotiate over the portion each would provide. Recent work, however, argues that Becker’s theory is based on a set of untenable assumptions. First, as Stevens (1999) points out, differentiating between general and specific skills may be

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Colin G. Brown

challenges relate not only in aligning Central and local objectives but also that many 84 04_China_Chapter04.indd 84 23/7/08 1:02:33 PM Managing Grassland Policies 85 grassland activities extend across local administrative boundaries raising issues of conflicts and co-ordination between local officials. One way of looking at the plethora of policies directed at the grasslands is in terms of a ‘carrot and stick’ approach. The ‘stick’ approach in isolation has failed in the past partly because of weak institutional capacity and conflicts of interest described in Chapter 3

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Social Evolution, Economic Development and Culture

What it Means to Take Japan Seriously

Ronald Dore and D. Hugh Whittaker

Social Evolution, Economic Development and Culture brings together Ronald Dore’s key writings for the first time, making his work accessible across a wide range of social science disciplines. It produces a distinctive perspective with four interlinking themes – technology-driven social evolution, late development, culture and polemics. These are highly topical in the current context of rapid technological innovation and socio-economic change, globalization and accompanying policy choices.
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Haider A. Khan

-operation (currency swaps, exchange rate pegs, currency unions); and regional public goods (health and environmental protection). 54 Regional co-operation, governance, infrastructure and trading costs 55 Many of these have been examined extensively elsewhere (for example, see Bhattacharya, 2006; Kawai, 2005). The issue I discuss in this chapter is how and why soft infrastructure can assist in this process. Clearly, regional cooperation and co-ordination, and operation of economic activity regionally, require infrastructure. However, the following discussion is intended to