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Sarath Rajapatirana

4. Trade policies, macroeconomic adjustment and manufacturing exports Sarath Rajapatirana I. INTRODUCTION The principal question in the literature on the relationship between trade policies and macroeconomic adjustment is how macroeconomic adjustment impinges on trade policy making. Most of the literature on the sequencing of trade policies postulates that macroeconomic stabili zati on and adjustment should precede trade policy refonns. This sequencing procedure is based on the argument that because of macroeconomic d isequilibrium - which appears as

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Selim Raihan

14. Foreign competition and growth: Bangladesh manufacturing industries Selim Raihan INTRODUCTION The relationship between increased foreign competition (or trade liberalization) and economic growth is a controversial issue. Trade liberalization has been one of the major policy reforms in the developing countries for the last two decades. Whilst there is an apparent consensus that the effects of increased foreign competition on economic performance are likely to be positive, the evidence to support this is far from conclusive. On the one hand, the theories on the

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Satu Aaltonen and Ulla Hytti

9.  Practices hindering employee innovative behaviour in manufacturing SMEs Satu Aaltonen and Ulla Hytti INTRODUCTION Innovation is central to growth and competitiveness for small and medium- sized firms (SMEs) (Freel 2005; Love and Roper 2015; Parrilli and Elola 2012; Wolff and Pett 2006). While innovation has been extensively studied in the SME context, most research has considered it an attribute of the organization or scrutinized the abilities of the entrepreneur/ entrepreneurial team (for example, de Jong and Marsili 2006; Verhees and Meulenberg 2004). More

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Margarida Proença, Isabel Correia and Orlando Petiz

30 Export performance and productivity in Portuguese manufacturing SMEs Margarida Proença, Isabel Correia and Orlando Petiz 1 Introduction This chapter examines the determinants of export propensity of Portuguese manufacturing SMEs. The most recent literature on firm’s internationalization tries to establish a relationship between performance, productivity and trade, assuming a model with heterogeneous firms. Applying quantile regression, this study supports the notion that firms are heterogeneous, and that exporting firms have higher productivity levels and are

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Michael Landesmann and Robert Stehrer

12. Skills and the competitiveness of EU manufacturing industries* Michael Landesmann and Robert Stehrer 12.1 INTRODUCTION The relationship between human capital and productivity growth (i.e., GDP per capita) has widely been discussed in the literature on (endogenous) growth at the macroeconomic level. Important contributions also providing overviews over the relevant topics in this respect are, for example, Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995) and Aghion and Howitt (1998), and for more recent contributions see Helpman (2004) and European Commission (2006). The role

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UNIDO

Section 1.2 THE MANUFACTURING DIVISIONS / BRANCHES Table 1.5 DISTRIBUTION OF WORLD VALUE ADDED, SELECTED DIVISIONS AND YEARS (Percentage) Industrialized Economies Europe All Economies 74.0 69.4 56.6 57.6 48.3 30.7 62.8 49.8 28.2 64.9 46.7 28.1 58.4 46.6 26.4 83.6 80.6 62.2 81.1 74.4 58.3 90.3 87.4 79.1 68.1 66.4 57.3 80.7 76.1 62.7 b/ a/ Developing & Emerging Industrial Economies ISIC Division 15 Food and beverages Year 2000 2005 2013 2000 2005 2013 2000 2005 2013 2000 2005 2013 2000 2005 2013 2000 2005 2013 2000 2005 2013 2000 2005 2013 2000 2005 2013

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Bert Diederen, Pierre Mohnen, Franz C. Palm and Sybrand Schim van der Loeff

4. Innovation in enterprise clusters: evidence from Dutch manufacturing* Bert Diederen, Pierre Mohnen, Franz C. Palm, Wladimir Raymond and Sybrand Schim van der Loeff INTRODUCTION The innovation survey data collected by Statistics Netherlands for the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) pertain to enterprises. However, enterprises are, in fact, often subsidiaries, daughter or sister enterprises, or part of a conglomerate. When the associated legal entities are majoritycontrolled by a group leader, it is likely that key decisions will be taken with a view to

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UNIDO

Section 1.2 THE MANUFACTURING DIVISIONS / BRANCHES Table 1.5 (Percentage) Industrialized countries Europe Developing countries World Other 0.7 0.5 0.6 2.4 2.3 2.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 3.2 3.0 3.4 1.0 0.8 0.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.8 2.0 2.1 20.0 18.5 17.4 23.2 22.3 23.5 32.5 27.7 25.3 17.4 14.7 12.8 10.2 7.5 6.8 39.0 38.8 31.7 30.4 26.3 22.6 29.8 26.7 24.3 11.2 10.9 10.0 24.1 22.1 19.5 9.7 6.4 4.6 9.8 5.8 4.6 1.3 1.0 0.8 2.7 2.6 2.7 4.2 4.1 3.7 1.3 1.4 1.4 0.9 0.7 0.7 1.4 1.3 1.5 19.4 11.9 8.5 17.3 9.8 7.7 1.5 1.3 1.1 11.5 7.0 5

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UNIDO

Section 1.2 THE MANUFACTURING DIVISIONS / BRANCHES Table 1.5 DISTRIBUTION OF WORLD VALUE ADDED, SELECTED DIVISIONS AND YEARS (Percentage) Industrialized countries a/ Developing countries World ISIC Division Year All countries CIS 1.7 2.2 2.2 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.6 0.3 0.5 0.5 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.0 1.0 0.8 EU-15 25.4 23.4 20.0 11.4 7.2 4.7 24.7 18.1 12.6 20.9 15.1 11.7 31.4 20.2 12.6 25.9 24.2 25.8 25.5 24.6 23.6 33.3 33.5 33.3 10.7 8.9 8.5 27.9 25.6 23.1 Europe North America 17.5 16.2 14.2 10.9 7.3 3.9 13.8 10

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Nadine Levratto, Denis Carré and Luc Tessier

7. Are French industrial establishments equally sensitive to the local atmosphere? An analysis resting upon a panel of manufacturing plants over the period 2003–2010 Nadine Levratto, Denis Carré and Luc Tessier INTRODUCTION Since the very beginning of the 2008 crisis, local authorities have been worrying about the consequences of firms closing down on employment. Many policy makers tried to implement measures and policies to prevent a massive increase in unemployment and loss of economic competitiveness. Quite new in a traditionally centralized country such as