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Elizabeth A.M. Searing, Jesse D. Lecy and Fredrik O. Andersson

5. Ecologies within the habitats of the zoo Elizabeth A.M. Searing, Jesse D. Lecy, and Fredrik O. Andersson INTRODUCTION Long gone are the zoos of old where animals were kept in cages and displayed separately. The modern zoo is a complex organization incorporating education, conservation, and research (Scott, 2012). Animals are generally united in habitats that include or reflect natural ecosystems. At the Oregon Zoo in Portland, for example, the Africa Savanna habitat contains zebra, gerenuk, hooded vultures, lesser kudu, and occasionally other animals. This is

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Dennis R. Young and Wesley Longhofer

societies within which they operate, respect the natural environment, and treat well the entire range of stakeholders who risk capital in, have an interest in, or are linked to the firm through primary and secondary impacts.” Among their examples is Costco and its respectable employment practices. Benefit corporations. According to the Benefit Corporation Information Center (2015), benefit corporations “are a new class of corporations that are required to create a material positive impact on society and the environment and to meet higher standards of accountability and

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David Coen and Wyn Grant

difficulties have been encountered in extracting taxation from multinational businesses. Like any interest, business often possesses information that government needs to make and implement policy effectively. Its consent to, and endorsement of, particular policies adds to their legitimacy. However, business has an additional advantage. Governments are often judged in terms of their economic competence, indeed increasingly so as socially embedded voting blocs in the electorate decline in importance. Voters increasingly become like consumers, judging governments

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John E. Tyler III

comprehensively available, the comparative framework seems at best aspirational. Benchmarking Another way to assess the zoo’s impact might be to evaluate whether (and which of) SE’s efforts provide social benefits, cause social harm, or are neutral relative to a given benchmark of existing conditions. In other words, did social conditions change and, if so, were the changes for the better or worse? Traditional business and markets have many indicators of their status and performance. Interest rates, firm formations, market exchanges, employment, underemployment, durable goods

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The Social Enterprise Zoo

A Guide for Perplexed Scholars, Entrepreneurs, Philanthropists, Leaders, Investors, and Policymakers

Edited by Dennis R. Young, Elizabeth A.M. Searing and Cassady V. Brewer

The Social Enterprise Zoo employs the metaphor of the zoo to gain a more comprehensive understanding of social enterprise – especially the diversity of its forms; the various ways it is organized in different socio-political environments; how different forms of enterprise behave, interact, and thrive; and what lessons can be drawn for the future development and study of organizations that seek to balance social or environmental impact with economic success. Recommended for students, researchers, policymakers, entrepreneurs and managers of social purpose organizations.
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Edited by Friederike Welter and William B. Gartner

There is growing recognition that entrepreneurship can be better understood within its context(s). This carefully designed book invites readers to take a journey: from reflecting critically on where the discussion on context and entrepreneurship stands today towards identifying future research questions and themes that deserve the attention of entrepreneurship scholars. This collection draws attention to the research challenges the entrepreneurship field faces by reviewing the many facets of contexts and by reflecting on methods and theoretical approaches that are required in order to contextualize entrepreneurship research. Students and academics interested in context and entrepreneurship will benefit from this far-reaching and forward-thinking book.
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Entrepreneurship, Universities & Resources

Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research

Edited by Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn, Denise Fletcher and Friederike Welter

The role of resources is pivotal in entrepreneurship for the success of new and small ventures, though most face resource constraints. The book offers multiple perspectives on analysing and understanding the importance of resources in entrepreneurship development. Approaching the subject with both a practice-theory and research-based approach, the contributors analyse topics such as processes and structures in social entrepreneuring; entrepreneurship and equity in crowdfunding; and forming alliances with large firms to overcome resource constraints. The contributors provide evidence, for example, on how business angels can contribute more than finance to small ventures and how the flexibility of resources is important in internationalisation.
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Jesse D. Lecy and Elizabeth A.M. Searing

because of nuances in how life stages are conceptualized, but partly from variation across different industries and markets. Charter schools that serve poor populations are an important form of social enterprise, but because of natural limits to the size of a school and the regulatory environment they may only need to pass through one or two life cycle stages on the way to maturity. TOMS shoe store, on the other hand, has a multinational manufacturing base and national retail footprint that requires a complex supply chain, sophisticated marketing, and flexible human

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Elina Varamäki, Sanna Joensuu-Salo and Anmari Viljamaa

) respondents. The second wave for this study was collected by sending a selfadministered questionnaire in autumn 2013 for the alumni of Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences who had graduated 1.5–3.5 years ago at Bachelor level. Altogether, 1045 responses were received (response rate 46 per cent). For these respondents, a measurement result for entrepreneurial intentions during studies could be identified for 282 students: 100 students had a measurement from the fourth year, 106 students from the third year, nine students from the second year and 67 students from the

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Elizabeth A.M. Searing and Dennis R. Young

consistent with their philanthropic missions (Tyler, 2010). In particular, PRIs allow foundations to invest in ventures from which they may be able to profit (Searing, 2012). They can take the form of equity, debt, or loan guarantees, and they can be offered to for-­profit, low-­profit, or nonprofit entities. A PRI to a nonprofit often takes the form of a loan, where the foundation receives some interest (normally at a below-­market rate) as well as repayment of the loan principle. This allows the foundation to “recycle” its funding over time among alternative social