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Harvey Goldstein and Alexander Rehbogen

autonomy does not necessarily imply erosion of the hallmark of institutions of higher education as places of open and free inquiry. Yet one of the most oft-discussed potential impacts of the entrepreneurial turn is whether it has led to an erosion of the norms of open science. Analyzing survey data of about 700 natural scientists in Japan, Shibayama (2010) M3078 - BAYCAN TEXT.indd 62 19/02/2013 15:56 An analysis of faculty attitudes 63 concluded that the norm of making ‘practical’ contributions, and the norms of open science are determined independently. In other

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Maria Ljunggren and Hans Westlund

researchers, i.e. teachers and PhD students, at Stockholm University, totalling approximately 3200 respondents. This includes researchers and teachers from the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and faculty of law. Only employees working no less than 40 per cent were asked to complete the survey. At the closure of the survey there were 1469 replies (N  5  1469), corresponding to a reply frequency of 48 per cent, failed addresses excluded. The response rate was slightly higher in natural M3078 - BAYCAN TEXT.indd 91 19/02/2013 15:56 92 Knowledge

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Mehmet Ugur

intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM) are not allocated to user sectors. Hence the value of the output of FISIM is treated as intermediate consumption of a nominal sector with zero output and negative value added equal in size but opposite in sign to intermediate consumption. CK  5 cost of capital. The cost of capital is not provided in national accounts. We have calculated it by multiplying the net capital stock by US interest rates adjusted for country risk (see below). 38 Governance, regulation and innovation CL  5 cost of labour. This is the compensation

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Kai Rao, Andrea Piccaluga and Xian-fei Meng

the interest and intention of companies for university technologies, which can be seen at the initial stage of the patent technology transfer process; their revenues often represent actual demand, detectable at middle-late stages. 2.1 UPTT, R&D Staff and University Faculty The relations of UPTT activities with university faculty and R&D staff can be analyzed with resource-based theory, which indicates that performance difference among organizations is due to the unique, difficult to duplicate, tangible or intangible resources. These resources become the

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Edited by Tüzin Baycan

The commercialization of academic knowledge is increasingly seen as a potential economic development model, particularly for improving the capabilities and economic performance of regions. This insightful volume investigates the emerging factors in knowledge commercialization from an international perspective and highlights research agendas and challenges to be met across academia, industry and government.
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Governance, Regulation and Innovation

Theory and Evidence from Firms and Nations

Edited by Mehmet Ugur

This book aims to disentangle the complex relationship between innovation and its potential determinants, paying special attention to the roles of governance and regulatory frameworks, and the ways in which the latter interact with other drivers of innovation such as competition and the innovator’s closeness to the technology frontier.
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Hugo Pinto and Manuel Fernández-Esquinas

for innovation in the period from 1999 to 2005 or that have indicated interest in receiving innovation advice. This source does not represent all firms from the region, only those with a potentially innovative profile. It is therefore assumed that a certain bias arises when compared to the whole industrial sector.4 Nevertheless this data source is suitable for observing the different patterns of interaction and the possible factors that operate within them because of the diversity of firms included. Firstly, it includes companies with differing innovative

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Nawar Hashem and Mehmet Ugur

examining both partial and interactive effects can be summarized as follows: investment in research and development (R&D) is costly and associated with uncertain returns for shareholders and uncertain private benefits for managers. At a given level of market concentration within an industry, CG rules affect managers’ innovation effort by ameliorating or exacerbating the agency problem. However, the level of market concentration also affects the managers’ innovation effort by affecting the rates of pre-­innovation and post-­innovation profits. Given these dynamics, it is

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When left to its own devices

Creative Destruction Revisited

Hugh van der Mandele and Arjen C. van Witteloostuijn

significantly. Even if the expected rates of return are high, it is difficult to attract outside finance. Outsiders tend to mistrust the arithmetic excessively, because external causes are more often than not invoked to cover internal problems. Another problem is that quite often newcomers can adapt more efficiently and effectively to external changes than established organizations, for a large variety of reasons that have to do with the usual – often When left to its own devices 121 decisive – ­bottlenecks associated with organizational change (see, for example, Sorge

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The soft constraint syndrome

Creative Destruction Revisited

Hugh van der Mandele and Arjen C. van Witteloostuijn

based on private property. Persistent losses lead sooner or later to ruin and an exit from commercial life (Kornai, 1998, p. 533). János Kornai wrote these lines in the course of developing his theory of the soft budget constraint syndrome, potentially one of the most fruitful theories in the field of economic policy. In the context of this book’s argument, Kornai’s theory of the soft budget constraint syndrome is a natural complement to Williamson’s theory of organizational control loss. As we will explain below in greater detail, it is this pair of theories that