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Richard C. Stedman

JOBNAME: Green PAGE: 3 SESS: 8 OUTPUT: Wed Nov 6 12:33:06 2013 5. Resource dependence and rural development Richard C. Stedman INTRODUCTION It is conventional wisdom (indeed, it is nearly a truism) among rural development boosters that the extraction and processing of natural resources – timber resources, fisheries, energy and minerals – contributes to employment, prosperity and development for rural places. Logically, this occurs in several ways: most evident are the direct returns – royalties, employment – that occur during the period of extraction

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David Kraybill

12:33:06 2013 274 Handbook of rural development social, financial and natural capital; while livelihood outcomes include food security, income, health, reduced vulnerability to shocks and investment. Since the mid-1990s, interest in African rural development has gained force through renewed focus on poverty alleviation. Following nearly two decades of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) mandated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank and supported by some donor countries as a condition for developing countries to receive loans and grants

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Edited by Gary Paul Green

rather than production activities. This dependence on consumption economies is most often the case through tourism and recreation. Natural resources are, therefore, multi-functional – serving both production and consumption functions. Production activities, such as mining and forestry, can promote development in rural areas, but they also may contribute to environmental degradation and marginalization of indigenous populations. Globalization has increased the opportunities for amenitybased development as interest in international tourism has soared. Ecotourism is one

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Edited by Gary Paul Green

Although most countries in the world are rapidly urbanizing, the majority of the global population – particularly the poor – continue to live in rural areas. This Handbook rejects the popular notion that urbanization should be universally encouraged and presents clear evidence of the vital importance of rural people and places, particularly in terms of environmental conservation. Expert contributors from around the world explore how global trends, state policies and grassroots movements affect contemporary rural areas in both developed and developing countries.
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David Marcouiller

in uncovering the complexities associated with this with respect to rural development. Three specific elements allow insight into this topic and are central to this discussion: (1) the role that natural amenities play in producing the tourism product; (2) rural tourism and linkages between the partially industrialized set of regional business sectors and household income generation; and (3) important socio-demographic transitions of rural regions. These elements provide a focus for this chapter. Several questions can help frame the set of issues around which this

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Stephan J. Goetz

development profession still places excessive emphasis on seeking economic salvation from outside the community rather than from internal sources. This chapter starts with a general definition of entrepreneurship and how it can be measured empirically, including the measurement challenges that arise especially in rural areas. This discussion is followed by a review of perceptions of entrepreneurship, and how entrepreneurial activity usually changes during the course of economic development as economies shift from natural resource to manufacturing and services

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Thomas G. Johnson

must be place-based. This does not preclude national or state rural policies, but it suggest that these policies must be flexible enough to adapt to the natural, cultural, social, environmental and economic conditions of each place. Rural Wealth Creation The emphasis of rural development policy has traditionally been on increasing the rate of growth in productivity and income of rural residents. When rural policy was essentially equated to agricultural policy, this meant that higher farm incomes equaled rural development. Thus it was accepted that farm income

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Un-American Indian reservations and resource management

Markets Meet the Environment in Unexpected Places

Terry Anderson

states as observations in a panel study. Johnson found that states with a relatively high share of their economies engaged in natural resources, such as mining, grew at slower rates between 1977 and 2002 (2008, 235). The common thread running through the numerous resource curse studies of the causes of economic growth across countries and states is that institutions and the rule of law matter. The presence of natural resources can incentivize players to obtain economic rent by manipulating the social or political environment in which economic activities occur

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Environmental Entrepreneurship

Markets Meet the Environment in Unexpected Places

Laura E. Huggins

In this innovative book, Laura E. Huggins finds path breaking entrepreneurial solutions to difficult environmental challenges in some of the world’s poorest areas. The approaches entrepreneurs are taking to these challenges involve establishing property rights and encouraging market exchange. From beehives to barbed wire, these tools are creating positive incentives and promoting both economic development and environmental improvements. The case studies are from the developing world and reveal where the biggest victories for less poverty and more conservation can be won. The pursuit begins by learning from local people solving local problems.
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Ecosystems at your service in South America

Markets Meet the Environment in Unexpected Places

Laura E. Huggins

the flora. It is also true that companies that have environmental components to their Columns Design XML Ltd / Job: Huggins-Environmental_Entrepreneurship / Date: 2/7 / Division: Chapter4_edited /Pg. Position: 2 JOBNAME: Huggins PAGE: 3 SESS: 3 OUTPUT: Fri Aug 9 11:42:28 2013 Ecosystems at your service in South America 107 business plans and seek to create goods from natural products, including wool, have an interest in seeing grasslands flourish for the long term. And tourists like me who want to fish and recreate in Patagonia would be willing to pay a