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David Kraybill

12:33:06 2013 274 Handbook of rural development social, financial and natural capital; while livelihood outcomes include food security, income, health, reduced vulnerability to shocks and investment. Since the mid-1990s, interest in African rural development has gained force through renewed focus on poverty alleviation. Following nearly two decades of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) mandated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank and supported by some donor countries as a condition for developing countries to receive loans and grants

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Richard C. Stedman

JOBNAME: Green PAGE: 3 SESS: 8 OUTPUT: Wed Nov 6 12:33:06 2013 5. Resource dependence and rural development Richard C. Stedman INTRODUCTION It is conventional wisdom (indeed, it is nearly a truism) among rural development boosters that the extraction and processing of natural resources – timber resources, fisheries, energy and minerals – contributes to employment, prosperity and development for rural places. Logically, this occurs in several ways: most evident are the direct returns – royalties, employment – that occur during the period of extraction

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Edited by Gary Paul Green

rather than production activities. This dependence on consumption economies is most often the case through tourism and recreation. Natural resources are, therefore, multi-functional – serving both production and consumption functions. Production activities, such as mining and forestry, can promote development in rural areas, but they also may contribute to environmental degradation and marginalization of indigenous populations. Globalization has increased the opportunities for amenitybased development as interest in international tourism has soared. Ecotourism is one

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Edited by Gary Paul Green

Although most countries in the world are rapidly urbanizing, the majority of the global population – particularly the poor – continue to live in rural areas. This Handbook rejects the popular notion that urbanization should be universally encouraged and presents clear evidence of the vital importance of rural people and places, particularly in terms of environmental conservation. Expert contributors from around the world explore how global trends, state policies and grassroots movements affect contemporary rural areas in both developed and developing countries.
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David Marcouiller

in uncovering the complexities associated with this with respect to rural development. Three specific elements allow insight into this topic and are central to this discussion: (1) the role that natural amenities play in producing the tourism product; (2) rural tourism and linkages between the partially industrialized set of regional business sectors and household income generation; and (3) important socio-demographic transitions of rural regions. These elements provide a focus for this chapter. Several questions can help frame the set of issues around which this

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Stephan J. Goetz

development profession still places excessive emphasis on seeking economic salvation from outside the community rather than from internal sources. This chapter starts with a general definition of entrepreneurship and how it can be measured empirically, including the measurement challenges that arise especially in rural areas. This discussion is followed by a review of perceptions of entrepreneurship, and how entrepreneurial activity usually changes during the course of economic development as economies shift from natural resource to manufacturing and services

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Thomas G. Johnson

must be place-based. This does not preclude national or state rural policies, but it suggest that these policies must be flexible enough to adapt to the natural, cultural, social, environmental and economic conditions of each place. Rural Wealth Creation The emphasis of rural development policy has traditionally been on increasing the rate of growth in productivity and income of rural residents. When rural policy was essentially equated to agricultural policy, this meant that higher farm incomes equaled rural development. Thus it was accepted that farm income

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Michael L. Dougherty

also serve to insulate agrarian communities against exogenous shocks such as drought, inflation, commodity price volatility, crop disease and natural disaster. Remittance income allows semi-proletarianized rural citizens to live less precariously and manage in times of austerity or crisis. Further, on the national scale, remittance flows are associated with higher rates of economic growth and investment (Fajnzylber and Lopez 2008). In short, remittances represent meaningful and important short-term economic development on the community and national levels for

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Linda Lobao and Jeff Sharp

generating rural development. By ‘agriculture’, we refer to and focus on the farm sector of the food and fiber industry. By ‘rural development’ we refer to a package of indicators of populations’ wellbeing, focusing particularly on socio-economic conditions. By the latter we include standard indicators of economic development as measured by economic performance such as aggregate income and employment; and a broader range of indicators on the distribution of material well-being, such as poverty rates and income inequality. In addition to socio-economic conditions, rural