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Javier Campos

United States, the liberalization of air transport in Europe started to bring a proliferation of travel options for consumers through new types of Air transport ­41 rates and greater benefits associated with loyalty programmes. However, with few exceptions, no significant changes in the market structure took place at the beginning. Two of the reasons identified to explain this result were related to infrastructure inefficiencies: on one hand, important technical and economic capacity restrictions remained at airports; and on the other, airspace congestion in the

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Matthias Finger and Torben Holvad

both transport infrastructure and operations. Some progress has also been achieved in terms of competition for transport operations, facilitated amongst others through third-­party access rights to the markets. As for infrastructure, the situation with respect to competition has remained more stable with either monopolies or competition for the market (tendering), where relevant taking into account the inherent natural monopoly characteristics for infrastructure provision. It should be mentioned that all sectors and all countries in the European Union (EU) have

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Edited by Mattias Finger and Torben Holvad

This book concerns the regulation of transport within a European context, covering air, inland waterways, rail, road passenger and freight, urban public transport, and short sea shipping. All these sectors have experienced substantial changes over the last two decades, in terms of ownership, competition and liberalisation, and the book explores the main transformations and their impacts. The authors address these issues, with a specific focus on the effects of the organisation and regulation of transport systems on their performance. They also provide timely policy recommendations, including possible European future policy initiatives.
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Carl Koopmans and Piet Rietveld

Approach The first approach is deriving discount rates from market behaviour, in particular capital markets. In capital markets, actors trade future and present costs and benefits. To receive money now, actors have to promise a larger repayment in the future, including interest, dividend and/or increases in stock values. Therefore, the interest rates or profit rates in these markets reflect the willingness to pay of economic actors for having costs or benefits now instead of in the future. As willingness to pay is the basic measure of all costs and benefits in SCBA, it

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Bert van Wee and Piet Rietveld

PRINT.indd 270 04/10/2013 16:32 CBA: ex ante evaluation of mega-projects 271 preferences.2 Costs and benefits occur in different years within the time horizon of the CBA. To deal with this, they are presented as so-called net present values, implying that, taking interest and inflation into account, it is better to have 1 euro or dollar today than in, for example, 2030. The discount rate is used to express this valuation (see Chapter 14). The final results are often presented in summarizing indicators. The main indicators that are presented are the difference

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Edited by Hugo Priemus and Bert van Wee

This comprehensive and accessible Handbook presents state-of-the-art research on the decision-making processes in the deliverance of mega-projects – large infrastructure projects for the transportation of people and/or goods.
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Arjan van Binsbergen, Rob Konings, Lóri Tavasszy and Ron van Duin

of transport, infrastructure providers, terminal operators), it also comprises a complicated chain of activities. Because of the limited number of users of transhipment terminals (several orders of magnitude lower than in passenger transport, often not more than a handful) it involves investments in service connections and in synchronized operations. In addition, it involves a more far-reaching intrusion into the natural or built environment than uni-modal transport projects. Transhipment generates additional activities that cluster around and provide employment

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Richard Gilbert

control’, explained Google’s official blog (Google, 2012). Google’s interest in transport in a sense antedates its primary interest M3238 - PRIEMUS 9781781002292 PRINT.indd 420 04/10/2013 16:32 Road vehicle automation: elephant in the infrastructure room 421 in search engines. During his May 2009 Commencement Address at the University of Michigan, Google co-founder Larry Page said: When I was here . . . I wanted to build a personal rapid transit system on campus to replace the buses. It was a futuristic way of solving our transportation problem. I still think a lot

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Graeme Hodge and Carsten Greve

models in between either fully public provision or outright privatization, Savas (2000, p. 241) nominates ten models, and OECD (2008, p. 22) nominates 14 options. See Monteiro (2010), for example. Note that this chapter focuses simply on the PPP objectives of government. We might reflect that the private financing of a long-term infrastructure does not strictly reduce the call on the budget. All public infrastructure debts must be repaid in the end, at hopefully minimum interest rates to ensure efficiency, except where a government enters an infrastructure deal and

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Hugo Priemus, Marian Bosch-Rekveldt and Mendel Giezen

political changes, wars, natural disasters and famine, but also by wide, often abrupt economic changes in the form of, say, a debt crisis. Societal changes may be of an economic nature (rise or fall in prosperity, shifts in employment and unemployment, changes in short- and long-term interest) and may express themselves in new preferences and changes in behaviour. Not infrequently, social and economic change goes hand in hand with changing technology, especially over a longer timescale. Consider the introduction of and improvements to automobile and air transport and the