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Christian Webersik and Christian D. Klose

industrialization. This was also the beginning of environmental protection, as Trujillo began to protect forests to generate hydro-­electric power and to protect his personal interest in logging. Balaguer, who shaped Dominican politics for the next three decades, continued with this path of development and environmental protection until 1996. In the last years, the countries’ gross domestic product (GDP) increased though large economic inequalities persist in both countries. NATURAL HAZARDS IN HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC One way to answer the question whether natural

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Humberto Llavador, John E. Roemer and Joaquim Silvestre

involving a large empirical component (see, e.g., Gordon, 1954; Scott, 1955; Clark, 1990). A first objective is the characterization of the dynamic path for the population of a species under various specifications of the natural growth rate and the dependence of the harvest on both the harvesting effort and the size of the population, and the definition of the maximal sustainable yield (MSY). Second, after introducing the disutility of harvesting effort, this literature studies the best dynamic paths, either by a cost–benefit argument or by maximizing the discounted

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Louis Kaplow, Elisabeth Moyer and David A. Weisbach

Assessment of climate change policies requires aggregation of costs and benefits over time and across generations, a process ordinarily done through discounting. Choosing the correct discount rate has proved to be controversial and highly consequential. To clarify past analysis and guide future work, we decompose discounting along two dimensions. First, we distinguish discounting by individuals, an empirical matter that determines their behavior in models, and discounting by an outside evaluator, an ethical matter involving the choice of a social welfare function. Second

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John M. Gowdy

grown at an annual rate of 3 percent per year since 2000, compared to 1.1 percent per year in the decade of the 1990s (Raupach et al., 2007) and reached record levels in 2010 (go. nature.com/rtgd7f). In view of the magnitude of emission increases, and the inertia of the world’s economic and political systems, the chances of limiting the CO2 level to one consistent with the Holocene’s stable climate regime are bleak. By some estimates CO2 levels could reach 2000 ppm within a few centuries if the readily available coal, petroleum and natural gas are burned (Kump, 2002

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Edited by Mark A. Cohen, Don Fullerton and Robert H. Topel

Governments around the globe have begun to implement various actions to limit carbon emissions and so, combat climate change. This book brings together some of the leading scholars in environmental and climate economics to examine the distributional consequences of policies that are designed to reduce these carbon emissions.
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Cameron Hepburn and Alex Bowen

9780857933683 PRINT (M3058).indd 621 05/04/2013 10:06 622 Handbook on energy and climate change Table 29.1 Estimates of environmental drag by Nordhaus (1992) Source of drag Non-renewable resources Energy fuels Non-fuel energy Entropy Pollution Greenhouse warming Local pollutants Land drag Total Impact on world growth rate 1980–2050 (basis points per year) Impact on world output in 2050 (percentage reduction) 15.5 2.9 0.0 10.3 2.0 0.0 2.9 4.4 5.2 30.9 2.0 3.0 3.6 19.4 Before Hotelling, Jevons (1865) was concerned with the effect of depletion of natural resources

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Colin Robinson

11 Energy policy: a full circle? Colin Robinson 1. INTRODUCTION Almost always and almost everywhere the energy industries are regulated by governments that attempt to steer those industries in directions they claim are conducive to the ‘public interest’. Since the end of the Second World War, most governments have had ‘energy policies’ most of the time.1 However, the balance between state regulation and voluntary action has varied over time. Governments have sometimes intervened extensively in energy markets and at other times they have partially withdrawn

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Edited by Roger Fouquet

This timely Handbook reviews many key issues in the economics of energy and climate change, raising new questions and offering solutions that might help to minimize the threat of energy-induced climate change.
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Ragnhild Nordås and Nils Petter Gleditsch

by use of information found in sources that have not been published or peer-­reviewed (e.g., industry journals, internal organizational publications, non-­peer reviewed reports or working papers of research institutions, proceedings of workshops etc.).11 On the other hand, however, the openness of the review process (in the interpretation above) is in contrast to the principle of double-­blind review, which is frequently practiced in the social sciences, less so in the natural sciences (Gleditsch, 2002). 70   Handbook on climate change and human security The IPCC

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Sebastian Rausch, Gilbert E. Metcalf, John M. Reilly and Sergey Paltsev

, and participants at the Energy Policy Symposium on Distributional Aspects of Energy and Climate Policy held in Washington, D.C., and the CEEPR Spring 2010 Workshop for helpful comments. We thank Dan Feenberg for providing data from the NBER TAXSIM simulator on marginal income tax rates. We thank Tony Smith-Grieco for excellent research assistance. We acknowledge support of MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change through a combination of government, industry, and foundation funding, the MIT Energy Initiative, and additional support for this work