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The Challenge of Local Government Size

Theoretical Perspectives, International Experience and Policy Reform

Edited by Santiago Lago-Peñas and Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

Expert contributors in economics and political science offer a comprehensive breakdown of the issue of local jurisdiction fragmentation and provide recommendations for successful policy reform. Topics discussed include economies of scale, the costs and benefits of voluntary and forced amalgamation programs, the correlation between government size and corruption, privatization, and inter-municipal cooperation. A combination of theory and empirical evidence provides depth and makes this book an invaluable addition to the literature.
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An international perspective on the determinants of local government fragmentation

Theoretical Perspectives, International Experience and Policy Reform

Juan Luis Gómez-Reino and Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

(∂F/∂G)/(∂F/∂yi) M3114 - LAGO-PENAS 9781782544296 PRINT.indd 14 22/04/2013 15:27 An international perspective on local government fragmentation 15 This says that the sum of the marginal rates of substitution between the public good (G) and the private good (Y) equals the marginal rate of transformation between the public and the private good: i 5 MRT SMRSG,y G,y which is the well-known Samuelson condition, also reached in Buchanan’s (1965) theory of clubs. The optimal size of N can also be obtained from the FOC as: S{(∂Ui /∂DGi)*(∂DGi /∂G)*(∂G/∂N)} 5 (∂F

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Corruption and the size of local governments: are they related?

Theoretical Perspectives, International Experience and Policy Reform

Michael A. Nelson

4. Corruption and the size of local governments: are they related? Michael A. Nelson Corruption of government officials has attracted the interest of economists for more than three decades.1 Two major strands have evolved from the literature over that time period, one dealing with how corruption influences economic performance and the other focusing on identifying what factors and institutional arrangements deter corrupt behavior. Our understanding of both has been aided by the recent introduction of measures of perceived or experienced corruption for

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Nadia Fiorino, Emma Galli and Fabio Padovano

low arrest rate for bribery may indicate a low diffusion of corruption or, alternatively, widespread corruption with no prevention efforts. Some papers (Treisman, 2007; Fan et al., 2009) instead rely on data issued by the World Business Environment Survey or WBES, which reports responses of business people and citizens operating in particular countries about their M3114 - LAGO-PENAS 9781782544296 PRINT.indd 122 22/04/2013 15:27 Fiscal decentralization and government fragmentation 123 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.4 10 0.0 8 Std. dev. Mean 0.8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

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Does local government size matter? Privatization and hybrid systems of local service delivery

Theoretical Perspectives, International Experience and Policy Reform

Mildred E. Warner

and metropolitan regional coordination on the other hand, that drive scholarly and practical policy interest in the question of suboptimal government size. The problem of fragmented and suboptimal sized local government is not just a challenge stemming from external forces and structures (Swanstrom, 2006), it is also an issue for internal forces as Imbroscio (2006) argues in his critique of scholars who attempt to “shame the inside game.” To address the challenges of suboptimal government size we need attention to both the inside and the outside game. On the outside

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Javier Campos

United States, the liberalization of air transport in Europe started to bring a proliferation of travel options for consumers through new types of Air transport ­41 rates and greater benefits associated with loyalty programmes. However, with few exceptions, no significant changes in the market structure took place at the beginning. Two of the reasons identified to explain this result were related to infrastructure inefficiencies: on one hand, important technical and economic capacity restrictions remained at airports; and on the other, airspace congestion in the

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Matthias Finger and Torben Holvad

both transport infrastructure and operations. Some progress has also been achieved in terms of competition for transport operations, facilitated amongst others through third-­party access rights to the markets. As for infrastructure, the situation with respect to competition has remained more stable with either monopolies or competition for the market (tendering), where relevant taking into account the inherent natural monopoly characteristics for infrastructure provision. It should be mentioned that all sectors and all countries in the European Union (EU) have

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Edited by Mattias Finger and Torben Holvad

This book concerns the regulation of transport within a European context, covering air, inland waterways, rail, road passenger and freight, urban public transport, and short sea shipping. All these sectors have experienced substantial changes over the last two decades, in terms of ownership, competition and liberalisation, and the book explores the main transformations and their impacts. The authors address these issues, with a specific focus on the effects of the organisation and regulation of transport systems on their performance. They also provide timely policy recommendations, including possible European future policy initiatives.
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Scott Milne

– by incorporating income and price as determining variables – is already a step towards identifying some of the (otherwise) unobserved components. The endogenization of these two economic factors by Chitnis and Hunt also helps to explain why those authors refer to the remaining unobserved components as ‘exogenous non-economic factors’. The term is perhaps unfortunate though, since there could well be further economic variables among the unobserved components driving changes in household expenditure, such as interest rates, household wealth or taxation. Factors

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Steven M. Hoffman and Angela High-Pippert

accounts, have turned ‘Greensburg into one of the “greenest” and most tornado-proof places in the country’ (Bowers, 2011). The desire to fashion a more locally oriented and renewably based energy future is not limited to those places presented with a blank slate occasioned by a natural disaster. The city of Boulder, CO, for instance, is one of more than 100 US cities that have recently entertained the concept of municipalization. In Boulder’s case, this would entail condemning 235 236 The global challenge of encouraging sustainable living the assets owned by the city