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Elissa Braunstein

the global economy contributes to this stance, as central banks feel pressure to maintain an attractive investment environment (one characterized by very low inflation and high interest rates) lest they run into balance-­of-­payments problems. This is particularly the case among developing and emerging market countries, where a central bank commitment to a (low) inflation target – to the exclusion of other targets such as employment – is perceived as an increasingly essential component of macroeconomic management. The result has been what many term the ‘deflationary

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Edited by Deborah M. Figart and Tonia L. Warnecke

The Handbook illuminates complex facets of the economic and social provisioning process across the globe. The contributors – academics, policy analysts and practitioners from wide-ranging areas of expertise – discuss the methodological approaches to, and analytical tools for, conducting research on the gender dimension of economic life. They also provide analyses of major issues facing both developed and developing countries. Topics explored include civil society, discrimination, informal work, working time, central bank policy, health, education, food security, poverty, migration, environmental activism and the financial crisis.
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Dominique Lallement

. World Bank data (2011) show that public capital formation from infrastructure can absorb from 4 to 20 percent of GDP in transition and developing economies, and a bit less in OECD countries. For countries with significant natural resource endowment such as hydrocarbon-­rich countries in the Middle East, Africa, or Latin America, rates of public spending on infrastructure increase as countries’ revenues increase from exports of oil or gas. In a new report by the World Bank (Ianchovichina et al., 2012), the authors estimate that the needs for infrastructure investments

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Stephanie Seguino

economy on gender equality therefore requires us first to identify the specific policies in question and the measures of gender inequality we want to consider. With that in mind, I explore below several categories of macro-­level policies and their impacts on gendered equality. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Two major tools at the disposal of the government to manage the macro economy are monetary policy (central bank interventions to influence the money supply, rate of interest, availability of credit, and exchange rate) and fiscal policy (government taxation and spending

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Patricia E. Perkins

, women worldwide have to seek ways of sustaining themselves and their families even in times of environmental and political crisis. They have always done so by building and maintaining social structures that provide a modicum of resilience. Key strategies include developing local ecological knowledge to use and try to protect natural sources of food, water, fuel, and shelter, and transmitting wisdom intergenerationally that tends to involve a healthy skepticism about technicist, male-­dominated and market-­oriented structures. Feminist ecological economics focuses on

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Nisrine Mansour

75.7 percent of men) are employed (ibid., Table A5). This high female employment rate has not translated into greater gender equality at the level of family relations, as women in China and Korea for instance suffer from discrimination such as gender-­based abortions and forced marriages. While economic achievement contributes to greater material means that could lead to greater economic power for women, it remains one single factor among other social and political influences (Jordan, 2008). Another popular perspective considers well-­being in relation to

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Barbara E. Hopkins

egalitarian employment model is better than a modified breadwinner model with protections for economic security such as pension credits for care work. Policy and norms will continue to vary and will change to reflect shifting compromises between interest groups. Notes 1. Data from OECD StatExtracts (, ‘LFS by sex and age – indicator, labor force participation rate, women, total ages’ and ‘Incidence of FTPT employment – common definition, women, total ages, total employment’. 2. This measure adds the percentage of women not in the labor

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Suzanne Bergeron

of free trade zones in which minimum wage laws, workplace safety, and other protections were loosened or nonexistent. To create a positive environment for foreign investment, the Bank and the IMF called for environmental regulations to be scrapped. Imported food, clothing, and other necessities became far more expensive as currencies were devalued to make exports from the home country more attractive. As the Bank and Fund’s standard formula for fixing the developing economies called for a tight monetary policy, credit was difficult to obtain and high interest rates