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Harvey Goldstein and Alexander Rehbogen

autonomy does not necessarily imply erosion of the hallmark of institutions of higher education as places of open and free inquiry. Yet one of the most oft-discussed potential impacts of the entrepreneurial turn is whether it has led to an erosion of the norms of open science. Analyzing survey data of about 700 natural scientists in Japan, Shibayama (2010) M3078 - BAYCAN TEXT.indd 62 19/02/2013 15:56 An analysis of faculty attitudes 63 concluded that the norm of making ‘practical’ contributions, and the norms of open science are determined independently. In other

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Maria Ljunggren and Hans Westlund

researchers, i.e. teachers and PhD students, at Stockholm University, totalling approximately 3200 respondents. This includes researchers and teachers from the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and faculty of law. Only employees working no less than 40 per cent were asked to complete the survey. At the closure of the survey there were 1469 replies (N  5  1469), corresponding to a reply frequency of 48 per cent, failed addresses excluded. The response rate was slightly higher in natural M3078 - BAYCAN TEXT.indd 91 19/02/2013 15:56 92 Knowledge

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Kai Rao, Andrea Piccaluga and Xian-fei Meng

the interest and intention of companies for university technologies, which can be seen at the initial stage of the patent technology transfer process; their revenues often represent actual demand, detectable at middle-late stages. 2.1 UPTT, R&D Staff and University Faculty The relations of UPTT activities with university faculty and R&D staff can be analyzed with resource-based theory, which indicates that performance difference among organizations is due to the unique, difficult to duplicate, tangible or intangible resources. These resources become the

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Edited by Tüzin Baycan

The commercialization of academic knowledge is increasingly seen as a potential economic development model, particularly for improving the capabilities and economic performance of regions. This insightful volume investigates the emerging factors in knowledge commercialization from an international perspective and highlights research agendas and challenges to be met across academia, industry and government.
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Hugo Pinto and Manuel Fernández-Esquinas

for innovation in the period from 1999 to 2005 or that have indicated interest in receiving innovation advice. This source does not represent all firms from the region, only those with a potentially innovative profile. It is therefore assumed that a certain bias arises when compared to the whole industrial sector.4 Nevertheless this data source is suitable for observing the different patterns of interaction and the possible factors that operate within them because of the diversity of firms included. Firstly, it includes companies with differing innovative

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Michael C. Carroll and Neil Reid

presentation were carefully chosen. In consultation with locally based USDA research scientists we identified and invited growers who were considered to be among the more open-­minded, 346   Handbook of industry studies and economic geography Threats and opportunities Common economic interest Bottom-up engagement Open membership Democratic decision making Shared economic responsibility Social capital External Economies Joint Action Collective efficiency Strengths and weakness Higher level of competitiveness Figure 13.1 Cluster-­based economic development

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Ruth Rama and Catalina Martínez

host countries of MNEs, include resource endowment, international transport and communication costs, investment incentives and disincentives, barriers to trade, R&D, and the institutional framework. We now briefly discuss three potential L-­advantages of F&B MNEs: their technological environment, their institutional environment and their natural resource endowment. Theories dealing with national systems of innovation emphasize the importance of space in learning processes, arguing that companies are more likely to seek new technology in the home country. The user and

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Edited by Frank Giarratani, Geoffrey J.D. Hewings and Philip McCann

This unique Handbook examines the impacts on, and responses to, economic geography explicitly from the perspective of the behaviour, mechanics, systems and experiences of different firms in various types of industries. The industry studies approach allows the authors to explain why the economic geography of these different industries exhibits such particular and diverse characteristics.
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Ann Markusen and Anne Gadwa Nicodemus

by more than sixfold for metros such as Los Angeles, Houston, Riverside/San Bernardino and Portland (Table 6.5). Even in cities where writers’ formal employment rates are high – such as Minneapolis with its large educational publishing industry, Washington with its huge public sector and public interest organizations, and Kansas City with Hallmark Cards – writers’ ranks are underestimated by nearly 2 to 1 or more. These differentials are particularly remarkable since the Census asks only for primary occupation (and thus misses the 15 percent of the writers

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Regional economic development and competitiveness

Place-based Development in International Economic Networks

Mark Thissen, Frank van Oort, Dario Diodato and Arjan Ruijs

. 3.2.1  Available Resources and Education The classical literature3 focuses on the availability of natural resources such as oil, or abundant supply of land, which will lead to regional economic specialization based on a comparative advantage of firms in different regions. This specialization in different sectors and regions results, however, not in a difference in wealth over the regions as income levels, wages and interest rates will equalize in the long run. Policy intervention is limited since the specialization of different regions is completely driven by the