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Giorgio Brosio

to reap the full benefits of decentralization, with governments often neglecting the building of capacity. And local officials may not fully exploit opportunities to provide better service. Decentralized governance in Asia is facing many challenges. Some, such as frequent natural disasters or the expanded availability of natural resources, are common to other regions of the world. Other challenges are particularly intense in Asia, such as the need to create subnational tax autonomy in regions that have traditionally relied on relatively low tax burdens. These

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Governance in Developing Asia

Public Service Delivery and Empowerment

Edited by Anil B. Deolalikar, Shikha Jha and Pilipinas F. Quising

Governance in Developing Asia is one of the first books of its kind to provide an overview of the role that better governance and citizen empowerment can play in improving public service delivery in developing Asia. The World Development Report 2004 set a framework for public service delivery in terms of the short and long roads to accountability of service providers to citizens. More than a decade on, this important book revisits the issue and departs from the WDR framework, highlighting its shortcomings and offering alternative solutions. The contributors present fresh evidence on the relationship between governance and development outcomes, including growth and indicators of living standards. They argue that the Asia-Pacific region must do better in delivering essential public services if it wishes to continue improving the quality of life for millions of its people. They show how the quantity and quality of public services in a country can be improved if the government actively solicits citizen involvement in service delivery.
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Joseph J. Capuno

enables the state to spread its financial risk, which is imperative when budget deficits or macroeconomic imbalances worsen. And when the state fails or falters in its mission, due, for example, to a natural disaster or political crisis, non-­state providers often step in to extend humanitarian relief or secure the health and welfare of vulnerable and marginalized groups. In doing so, they acquire special knowledge and expertise in dealing with these groups. And when community trust is important, NGOs sometimes have this rare currency that state agencies can tap for

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Cheng Cheng

building assistance, such as for training, government-­disbursed scholarships, or technical assistance. In addition to ODA, the OECD-­DAC also distinguishes a related type of financial flow, OOF, which refers to official finance that does not qualify as ODA, such as export credits and loans with lower grant elements. The IMF and World Bank have similar definitions but different requirements in terms of a grant element for loans. Rather than 10 percent as the fixed discount rate, the IMF and World Bank use floating rates, the Commercial Interest Reference Rate (CIRR), as

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Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz

22.  China’s expanding ties with Latin America Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz It is difficult to imagine that China’s active engagement with Latin America dates only to the start of the twenty-first century. In the decadeand-a-half since China adopted a ‘going global’ strategy to promote Chinese overseas investment, expand export markets, and gain much needed access to natural resources abroad, Sino–Latin American relations have both deepened and broadened at an unexpectedly rapid pace. The main driver behind this sea change in bilateral relations has been

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Terence Wesley-Smith

concessional rates of interest. There is also the worry that the new assistance package announced at the 2013 Guangzhou forum provides for a further USD 2 billion in concessional and non-concessional loans over the next four years.44 These are legitimate concerns because, if past patterns are any guide, the most important actors facilitating access to these loans will be Chinese corporations with little interest in the longer-term ramifications for government debt loads or default. Beijing’s diplomatic objectives in the region may require it to consider another debt

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David Janoff Bulman

imports in allowing and encouraging RMB use in external trade, the emergence of a dual exchange rate and dual interest rates for the RMB in the offshore Hong Kong market, and China’s gradual acceptance of more RMB return flows from Hong Kong, for example through the RQFII scheme. Combined with China’s growing economy, RMB internationalization efforts have been highly effective, increasing the use of RMB for cross-­ border trade and investment and developing offshore RMB markets. Prior to the global financial crisis, the RMB was a wholly domestic currency; 232  Handbook

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Edited by Carla P. Freeman

This Handbook explores the rapidly evolving and increasingly multifaceted relations between China and developing countries. Cutting-edge analyses by leading experts from around the world critically assess such timely issues as the ‘China model’, Beijing’s role in international development assistance, Chinese peacekeeping and South-South relations, and developing countries and the internationalization of the renminbi. Chapters also examine China’s engagement with individual countries and regions throughout the developing world. For scholars, practitioners, and postgraduates, the volume’s breadth and depth of coverage will inform and guide present and future analysis.
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Suisheng Zhao

appropriate policy measures. Unlike the heads of the American Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank and other major central banks, which are independent from politicians so they can take unpopular measures to thwart inflation, for example, the head of the PBOC answers to China’s political leaders, who often have limited understanding of monetary policy. As one of a dozen ministries that lobby top decision-­makers about whether or not to raise interest rates or boost the value of the currency to fight inflation, the central bank often loses such battles to ministries

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Selina Ho

natural strategic buffer between China and India, the Himalayas are largely responsible for the absence of conflict between the two societies until the 1962 border war. However, the Himalayas also have prevented the establishment of direct communication channels. This means that China’s knowledge of India is relatively limited compared to its understanding of the other parts of Asia. There is no common language platform or cultural similarities beyond Buddhism that tie the two countries together. This lack of communication increases the potential for misperceptions. The