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An overall model of development in Chile

Globalization and the Economic Miracles in Chile and Taiwan

Cal Clark and Evelyn A. Clark

considerable inflow of foreign capital starting in the late 1970s, primarily in the form of loans. Monetarism dovetailed well with this growing reliance on a private financial system as inflation was tamed with a combination of high interest rates, a sharp reduction in the growth of the money supply, and high exchange rates to keep the value of the peso high. Of course, such a tight monetary policy would inhibit growth in most cases by making new investments quite costly. Here, Chilean neoliberals devised an innovative escape route by integrating the country into global

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Neoliberalism and the paradoxes in economic theory

Globalization and the Economic Miracles in Chile and Taiwan

Cal Clark and Evelyn A. Clark

politically liberal governments (Gourevitch, 1986; Nau, 1990; Peters, 1991; Teeple, 1995). Economic problems elsewhere in the world also discredited the economic philosophy that had dominated the first 30 years of the postwar era. The developing world had had to borrow lavishly to finance its energy imports. This recycling of “petrodollars” from energy producers worked for a short time, but by the early 1980s led to financial crises in many developing countries when deflationary policies in the United States led to huge jumps in interest rates. In addition, the dominant

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Neoliberalism and the economic miracles in Chile and Taiwan

Globalization and the Economic Miracles in Chile and Taiwan

Cal Clark and Evelyn A. Clark

development proved to be quite impressive, although its growth rate has declined considerably over the last two decades, as is normal in post-industrial societies. Table 6.1  Indicators of Taiwanese economic and social performance 1 Notes: 1   In a few instances, the data may be for a year close to the specified one. 2   Per 1,00 live births. 3   Ratio of the income of the richest fifth of the population to that of the poorest fifth. Sources: CEPD (1987); CEPD (209); National Development Council (2014). Taiwan’s development was clearly driven by exports

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

percent, 36 percent, 29 percent, and 46 percent from 2011 according to data from multiple provincial data sources. HUKOU AND URBAN POPULATION GROWTH Population Growth in China There was very little difference in the growth rate between China’s urban and rural population during the Mao era. What did occur was mostly the result of natural increase. With reform and opening up in the early 1980s, as restrictions on migration were relaxed and demand for factory labor in cities exploded, tens of millions of former peasants migrated from farms and villages to cities and towns

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

, is grouped with Sichuan province. The four maps in Figure 4.1 display the results visually. At the beginning of reform and opening up, urbanization rates of all provinces except three provincial level municipalities in China were low. This contrasted sharply with urbanization rates in the three municipalities directly under the central government—Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai, all of which had urbanization rates higher than 50 percent at the time reform and opening began. The urbanization rates of the three northeastern provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning

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Understanding China's Urbanization

The Great Demographic, Spatial, Economic, and Social Transformation

Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

China’s urbanization is one of the great earth-changing phenomena of recent times. The way in which China continues to urbanize will have a critical impact on the world economy, global climate change, international relations and a host of other critical issues. Understanding and responding to China’s urbanization is of paramount importance to everyone. This book represents a unique exploration of the demographic, spatial, economic and social aspects of China’s urban transformation.
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T. E. Woronov

are ranked according to their success rate at producing students who do well on the UEE and enter universities; ‘key’ (zhongdian) schools are at the top of the academic hierarchy. The ways that the UEE drives curriculum and pedagogy throughout the Chinese education system have garnered tremendous attention, both in China and among the foreign media and researchers. Extensive research has described in detail the misery that this exam generates among young people and their families, as well as the ways the exam restricts learning to memorization tasks (e.g. Kipnis

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

though the population growth of many smaller developing countries is faster. For millennia China’s population has been distributed unevenly and during the last thirty years migration has accentuated the imbalance. Population clusters in the great river deltas, where there is fertile arable land, and areas that are accessible. The annual average growth rate of the urban population in a number of large city-egions has exceeded 5 percent. These densely agglomerated r city- egions are developing into Large City Clusters (hereafter LCCs) or r megalopolises. Most of the

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

an official town—the town proper; the latter to p ermanent residents of the town region. China had 19,683 official towns in 2011. The average population in a town seat was 12,500 and the average population in a town region was 44,000 (NBSC- ts, 2012). c In rural and urban censuses for the purposes of calculating China’s urbanization rate, official town seats are categorized as urban, and their 274 Understanding China’s urbanization residents are included in the urban population. Townships and rural regions of official towns are categorized as rural and their

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Wanning Sun

permissiveness and lust are often associated with exploitation, oppression or moral decay, performed by class enemies and individuals representing reactionary forces, and, in opposition to this, the revolutionary heroes and heroines are portrayed in a way which de-sexualizes them, thus symbolizing their political correctness and moral purity. Display of sexual desire as a natural, instinctual expression is seen to be incompatible with the revolutionary causes they embody. Cai’s analysis of a range of literary works, including novels such as Xiao Erhei Gets Married (Xiao Erhei