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Simon Birnbaum, Tommy Ferrarini, Kenneth Nelson and Joakim Palme

leave: 1 week and 26 weeks. In order to avoid confusion with other age-related needs, unemployment insurance and sickness insurance benefits are calculated solely based on entitlement structures of a single person model family. Income replacement for working-age risks is an additive index of unemployment and sickness insurance net replacement rates over the two periods of duration. For further information concerning measurements of unemployment and sickness insurance benefits, see Ferrarini et al. (2012a). For old-age risks we use the yearly pension benefit of two

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Simon Birnbaum, Tommy Ferrarini, Kenneth Nelson and Joakim Palme

unemployment rates, which have contributed to further reduce the proportion of economically active citizens. Meanwhile, neo-liberal ideas have dominated as templates for economic policy for decades, with consequences for how countries pursue social policies and in other ways tackle social inequalities. In parallel with the ageing crisis, recurrent economic and financial crises are taking their toll on the capacity of maturing welfare states to support social cohesion, as illustrated by the resurgence of old class inequalities in Western societies (OECD, 2011). The Great

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Participatory budgeting as a democratic innovation: Origins, expansion and limits

Promises and Limits of Democratic Participation in Latin America

Leonardo Avritzer

area that was constantly flooded by the sea. Brasília Teimosa became a ZEIS, a Special Zone of Social Interest, 9 but it has never received the resources it needs to generate good-quality, sustainable living conditions for the residents. PB made the urbanization of Brasília Teimosa a priority. PB introduced several inclusive policies in order to jumpstart urbanization, which required the temporary removal of up to 2500 people. All those removed were given rental aid to continue to live nearby and those who had skills were hired for the construction work (F

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Pierre Beckouche

poor planning regulation at the local level, the consequences are quite heavy on the natural environment as well as on the further capability of cities to develop collective transport. 3.1.5.  Social Disparities and Dynamics The total population in Morocco was estimated at 33 million people in 2012, rising from 12 million in 1960. The fertility rate, which was seven children per woman in the 1960s, had dropped to 2.2 in 2011, with the marriage age increasing greatly even in the rural areas. The prevalence of contraceptive use reached 67% of women aged 15–49 in 2011

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Peter A. Corning

. It is riddled with inequities – from oil depletion allowances to subsidies for wealthy farmers, and greatly reduced “carried interest” tax rates for investment bankers, along with the generally regressive nature of many of our taxes that impose a relatively heavier burden on the middle class and the poor. Even our federal income tax structure has become much less progressive over time. In 1950, when the American economy was booming, the top marginal tax rate was 91 percent on incomes over $1.68 million (in 1950 dollars). As recently as 1980, the top rate was 70

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Magdalena Kachniewska and Anna Para

million direct jobs, an increase of 2.0 percent over the next ten years (WTTC, 2014). As a result, there is an increasing need for highly educated, qualified professionals who possess professional knowledge and employability skills. In the highly volatile global tourism industry, the development of human resources seems to be crucial in achieving competitive advantages. Tourism is a multi-­faceted phenomenon involving many variables, activities and interest groups. For this reason training and education in tourism needs to be approached in an integrated and holistic

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Steven A. Peterson and Albert Somit

; the roots of cooperation and altruism in evolutionary theory; and, finally, the place of neuroimaging as a tool in explaining the brain’s role in political orientations and behavior. GROUP VERSUS INDIVIDUAL SELECTION It had been widely accepted that natural selection operates at the individual rather than the group level. When Wynne-Edwards (1962) authored a work using group selection to explain behavior, controversy developed. Responses to the group selection perspective were prompt. George Williams (1966) was in the forefront, locating the level of selection with

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Vanessa Lemm and Miguel Vatter

, 2000a: 319). The police govern conducts by controlling communications because the conducts at issue are those of individuals in “spontaneous orders” or networks that depend on such free communication. According to the liberal logic of political rationality, the limits of state rationality are given by the economic system, by a free market mechanism which is understood to operate according to natural laws of its own. Foucault describes the eighteenth-century homo oeconomicus as an individual who “pursues his own interests, and whose interest is such that it converges

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Ronald F. White

learning. In contrast, ELT also seeks to identify the proximate biological mechanisms that underlie those traits, behaviors, skills, and/or knowledge of both leaders and followers. Once identified, many biologists “reduce” higher-level mechanisms to lower-level mechanisms. For example, ELT scientists attempt to reduce male political behavior to lower-level material entities such as distinctive male brains, the presence of Y chromosomes and/or testosterone. According to ELT, political leaders and followers within all social species “emerge” out of various natural

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Edited by Steven A. Peterson and Albert Somit

The study of biology and politics (or biopolitics) has gained considerable currency in recent years, as articles on the subject have appeared in mainstream journals and books on the subject have been well received. The literature has increased greatly since the 1960s and 1970s, when this specialization first made an appearance. This volume assesses the contributions of biology to political science. Chapters focus on general biological approaches to politics, biopolitical contributions to mainstream areas within political science, and linkages between biology and public policy. The volume provides readers with a comprehensive introduction to the subject.