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Ye Liu

infrastructure has had direct implications on educational attainment. Evidence from African countries and Brazil demonstrates dramatic regional differences in educational attainment, as measured by trends in attendance and completion rates since the expansion of educational opportunities (Rigotti and Fletcher 2001; ORC/Macro 2000). A second type of research highlights the changes in politics and governance in education and the implications of these changes for geographical inequality. Literature in development studies argues that widening geographical inequality has been

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Zhongwei Zhao, Hongbo Jia and Jiaying Zhao

generally related to and an indication of the stage of epidemiological transition or changes in the major causes of death (Omran 1971, 1998; Olshansky and Ault 1986). Significant disparities in morbidity and causes of death are widely observed in China. According to the National Health Services Survey conducted in 2008, in more developed areas, prevalence rates of infectious diseases, digestive diseases, and injury and poisoning tended to be lower, while rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and malignant neoplasm tended to be higher. Relatedly, the prevalence rate of

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Ole Bruun

18.  Climate, environment and State–society relations in the mobilisation for welfare in China Ole Bruun INTRODUCTION With industrialisation firmly rooted in economic growth priorities, contemporary China has, from the outset, relegated environmental controls as a secondary concern. Thirty years of unbridled economic growth have exacted a huge toll on the natural environment, and inevitably also on human health. The country is now facing tremendous public health and welfare challenges from urban air pollution, toxic emissions from industry and power plants

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Edited by Beatriz Carrillo, Johanna Hood and Paul Kadetz

The Handbook is a timely compilation dedicated to exploring a rare diversity of perspectives and content on the development, successes, reforms and challenges within China’s contemporary welfare system. It showcases an extensive introduction and 20 original chapters by leading and emerging area specialists who explore a century of welfare provision from the Nationalist era, up to and concentrating on economic reform and marketisation (1978 to the present). Organised around five key concerns (social security and welfare; emerging issues and actors; gaps; future challenges) chapters draw on original case-based research from diverse disciplines and perspectives, engage existing literature and further key debates.