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Environmental Protection in China

Land-Use Management

Edited by Jeff Bennett, Xuehong Wang and Lei Zhang

Faced with intensified environmental degradation and decreased agricultural land productivity, the Chinese government has sought policy interventions to reverse both of these negative trends. Among the policy instruments is the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Program (CCFGP) that aims to change the pattern of agricultural land use in 25 provinces and autonomous regions across China. This book provides the most comprehensive assessment of the CCFGP undertaken to date. It allows the consideration of fundamental questions pertaining to the sustainability of the land use changes brought about by the CCFGP, its cost effectiveness and the prospects for policy evolution. Contributions from a wide range of economists and scientists in the book provide policymakers in the Chinese government with relevant information with which to pursue more effectively agro-environmental goals.
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Moazzem Hossain

coal, oil and natural gas, which release carbon dioxide and other substances known as greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (see Chapter 1). What is the ultimate outcome? In simple words, as the atmosphere becomes richer in these gases, it becomes a better insulator, retaining more of the heat provided to the planet by the sun. Climate scientists use elaborate computer models of temperature circulation to study global warming. Based on these models, they have made several predictions about how global warming will affect weather, sea levels, coastlines, agriculture

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Paul Howard

‘harmonious Socialist society’ concept as a reinterpretation of Jiang Zemin’s ‘Three Represents’. Holbig (2008, p. 27) argues: From the perspective of maintaining political legitimacy, Hu Jintao’s people centred policy, with its Confucian–Communist blend of imperial and Maoist doctrines, thus appears as a rational reaction to what seems to have been perceived as a looming legitimacy crisis in the wake of Jiang Zemin’s elitist redefinition of the common interest. It is pertinent to note, though, that the need to act in the interests of the people to ensure the CCP

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Malcolm McIntosh and Tapan Sarker

supply of food and water, natural disasters and progressive degradation of ecosystem goods and services. These factors also work together to undermine human security and threaten the health and sustainability of communities in the Asia–Pacific region (DuPont and Pearman 2006). The impacts of climate change on human security in particular are of serious concern, and are an important focus of the policy debate 214 M2549 - HOSSAIN PRINT.indd 214 24/02/2011 13:03 Climate change and human security issues 215 surrounding human security, climate change and

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Suthawan Sathirathai and Edward B. Barbier

discount rate. 1. APPENDIX Using data and information from the work of Lynne et al. (1981) which studied the relationship of natural marsh to the economic productivity of blue crab on Florida’s Gulf Coast, Ellis and Fisher (1987) developed a static optimization model using a Cobb–Douglas relationship to represent production of blue crab. The cost-minimization problem faced by a price-taking fishing industry is min L = cE + l(X–mEaAb), E – (11A.1) – where E is human effort as measured by the number of crab traps set; A is coastal wetland area in acres, which is

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Janet E. Milne

H674, H678, 1993 (projecting five-year budget impact). 66 Ibid.; Administration’s Energy Tax Proposals: Hearings Before the Committee on Finance, 103d Cong., Government Printing Office, 1993, pages 6–7 (statement of Hon. Lloyd Bentsen, Secretary, Department of Treasury). The deficit-reduction feature also allowed the Clinton Administration to address concerns about the impact of the tax on the economy and households. The Administration argued that reducing the deficit would strengthen the economy by lowering interest rates, which would reduce the cost of capital

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Ruangrai Tokrisna

density, relying on mainly ready-mixed feed. Semi-intensive and extensive farms were found only in Muang District of Nakhon Si Thammarat (10 farms). Semi-intensive farms were shrimp farms with a low stocking density, relying on natural larvae while stocking as an addition to natural feed abundance. Semi-intensive farms used some ready-mixed feed at a lower rate than the intensive farms. They were usually those farms that had been lost to disease. After a while, when the environmental conditions were better, owing to the decrease in numbers of shrimp farms in the area

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Jefferson VanderWolk

negative externalities but all types of tax rules related either directly or indirectly to environmental factors such as emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, waste disposal, the use of water and other natural resources, traffic congestion, aircraft noise, and so on. 2 Pakistan enacted a carbon tax in June 2009 but its implementation has been suspended by the country’s Supreme Court. The UK has a tax called the Climate Change Levy which is imposed on energy use rather than by reference to any measure or approximation of carbon emissions. Regarding British Columbia

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Wattana Sugunnasil and Suthawan Sathirathai

10. Coastal communities, mangrove loss and shrimp farming: social and institutional perspectives Wattana Sugunnasil and Suthawan Sathirathai BACKGROUND When natural resources such as mangroves are depleted at an alarming rate, it is obviously a question of mismanagement. As in the case of terrestrial forests in Thailand, mangroves are under the jurisdiction of the state through the care of the Royal Forestry Department (RFD). However, in practice, local coastal communities play significant roles in the use and management of the resources. This chapter will

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Edward B. Barbier and Suthawan Sathirathai

analysis of a cross-section of 89 countries containing mangroves, the chapter was able to provide evidence that mangrove loss globally is associated with expansion of aquaculture production and primary-sector (that is, agricultural) activities more generally. In particular, low and middle-income economies, such as Thailand and other rapidly developing tropical countries, that are expanding aquaculture production and are dependent on resource-based economic development generally for current growth, tend to have high rates of coastal mangrove conversion. Part I of this