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Betty Jane Punnett, Jo Ann Duffy, Suzy Fox, Ann Gregory, Terri R. Lituchy, Silvia Inés Monserrat, Miguel R. Olivas-Lujan and Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos

shown that exit rates of women faculty from the natural sciences and engineering are double those from the social sciences (Preston, 2004). The reasons are similar to those stated of other male-dominated professions (lower earnings and advancement opportunities, dearth of mentoring, and the difficulty of combining family with a scientific career), but these women face greater barriers than those in other fields. Publication rates for women in science and engineering are almost equal to those for men (Xie and Shauman, 1998), but women make up a very small proportion of

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Betty Jane Punnett, Jo Ann Duffy, Suzy Fox, Ann Gregory, Terri R. Lituchy, Silvia Inés Monserrat, Miguel R. Olivas-Lujan and Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos

Mexican workforce and factors that have been found to affect it more strongly from a macroeconomic standpoint, including education, fertility rates, civil – including maternity – status and economic need. The section after that presents the results of our empirical study, with details from both quantitative and qualitative components. Finally, we conclude the chapter with some thoughts on how important it is that more attention be given to ensuring an even playing field for women to develop fully their potential at work and increase their contribution to Mexico’s goals of

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Betty Jane Punnett, Jo Ann Duffy, Suzy Fox, Ann Gregory, Terri R. Lituchy, Silvia Inés Monserrat, Miguel R. Olivas-Lujan and Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos

-speaking Caribbean was selected as the locale for the pilot. Professor Punnett had been instrumental in getting the research group together, so the group supported the idea of doing the pilot in her region of research. She was already involved in projects which examined cross-cultural similarities and differences in the region, so this was a natural extension of her ongoing research. The English-speaking Caribbean also provided a locale where data could be collected from several different island nations, so that the pilot itself could begin to examine cross-national and cross

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Kenneth W. Koput and Barbara A. Gutek

the gender variable. When controlling for other factors that might correlate with gender and influence outcomes, the main effect of gender provides an existence test of stratification and status. Simply being female carries a penalty across outcomes, increasing dropout rates, precluding leadership, and reducing interviews, offers and salaries. In addition, the effect of other human capital factors is contingent on gender. Not only is the playing field not level, but men and women are playing different games. That is, the mechanisms for extracting value from human

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Colette Henry, Kate Johnston and Angela Hamouda

from the study in section VII. II. COUNTRY CONTEXT The Economic Picture During the last ten years, Ireland has undergone a phenomenal transformation. Traditionally an agricultural-based economy, through a series of aggressive policies designed to attract multinational firms, Ireland has evolved into a modern, high-value successful economy. Today Ireland is among the fastestgrowing economies in the developed world. As reported in Table 11.1 below, between 1994 and 2000, the Irish economy grew by an annual rate of 9 per cent, compared with 2 per cent between the

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Edited by Candida G. Brush, Nancy M. Carter, Elizabeth J. Gatewood, Patricia G. Greene and Myra M. Hart

Enterprising new firms drive economic growth, and women around the world are important contributors to that growth. As entrepreneurs, they seize opportunities, develop and deliver new goods and services and, in the process, create wealth for themselves, their families, communities, and countries. This volume explores the role women entrepreneurs play in this economic progress, highlighting the challenges they encounter in launching and growing their businesses, and providing detailed studies of how their experiences vary from country to country.
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Anne Kovalainen and Pia Arenius

’s participation in entrepreneurship has always been clearly lower than women’s participation in the labor force. Finnish women have been active in labor markets, first in agrarian societies because of economic necessity and later on as a ‘natural’ continuation of the strong cultural pattern of working women. The proportion of women (aged 15–74) of the labor force is currently 50.1 percent whereas the proportion of men is 49.9 percent (Statistics Finland, 2004). For women, the labor force participation rate, which is the proportion of those belonging to the labor force (employed

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Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Research

Diverse Settings, Questions and Approaches

Edited by Karen D. Hughes and Jennifer E. Jennings

Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Research responds to recent calls from academic researchers and policy analysts alike to pay greater attention to the diversity and heterogeneity among women entrepreneurs. Drawing together studies by 26 researchers affiliated with the DIANA International Research Network, this collection contributes to a richer and more robust understanding of the field.
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Jennifer R. Steele, Leah Reisz, Amanda Williams and Kerry Kawakami

, fashionable), and masculine (i.e. competitive, 176 Building interest and commitment aggressive, analytical). Consistent with their predictions, women who had previously taken a large number of courses in mathematics only rated the traits that were feminine and stereotypically associated with a lack of potential in mathematics (and not the traits that were feminine and not associated with a lack of math potential or masculine traits) as less representative of themselves than women with less exposure to courses in mathematics. These findings suggest that one way some women

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Suna Løwe Nielsen, Kim Klyver and Majbritt Rostgaard Evald

, Danish women are no longer merely a reserve army of labour; they hold a significant and all-important position in the labour market. In 2007, the employment rate for women was 71.5 per cent compared with an employment rate of 78.8 per cent for men (Statistics Denmark, 2008a). Moreover, the employment rate for women has increased from 68.6 per cent in 1997, while the employment rate for men actually decreased in the 60 Denmark 61 same period. Overall, the unemployment rate has decreased from 7.3 per cent to 3.5 per cent for women and from 4.1 per cent to 3.1 per cent