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Gerald A. McBeath, Jenifer Huang McBeath, Tian Qing and Huang Yu

China’s environmental problems increasingly attract global attention, yet critics often overlook the sizable efforts of the Chinese people and government to change attitudes and behavior, in order to improve environmental outcomes. This much-needed book provides a comprehensive introduction to environmental education in China. After consideration of the environment in Chinese philosophy, the authors focus on application of directives and new guidelines to compulsory, secondary and college education, and also analyze the way in which teachers are trained. They then examine conditioning factors, such as the media and NGOs, as well as the variation of education within China, and attempt to measure the efficacy of environmental education over time.
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Gerald A. McBeath, Jenifer Huang McBeath, Tian Qing and Huang Yu

institutionalization of environmental NGOs in China is lower than in Taiwan. NGOs in Hong Kong register high rates of turnover; we speculate that their rate of institutionalization is between that of Taiwan and China. 3.2 Specialization Taiwan’s environmental NGOs are relatively specialized by area of environmental concern. A large number specialize in reducing pollution, for example efforts of TEPU to address air pollution and climate change effects, Heichao (Black Tide) to reduce ocean pollution, Tainan Teachers Association and Green Citizens’ Action Alliance to reduce river

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Gerald A. McBeath, Jenifer Huang McBeath, Tian Qing and Huang Yu

and ways to restore the species/ecosystems to natural conditions or mitigate adverse impacts. Like many other NGOs, foreign and domestic, much of TNC’s work focuses on capacity-building. As with other international and domestic NGOs, it attempts to involve young people ‘in nature’ so that they will ‘feel it’ and care about it. Its program associates and volunteers work with community members to improve local sustainability, for example, in a Tibetan region, to reduce the size of houses to save wood, improve energy efficiency of stoves, use solar heat and diversify

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Raimund Bleischwitz, Stephan Moll, Stefan Bringezu, Dirk Assmann, Manfred Fischedick, Stefan Thomas, Holger Wallbaum and Rainer Lucas

not exceed 12 million tonnes per year and the proportion of re-used materials will represent at least 15 per cent of the ballast used (Ministry of the Environment, 2000). 64 Eco-efficiency, regulation and sustainable business The tax base is natural gravel, which is naturally sorted earth materials consisting of sand, gravel, stone and rock. The tax rate is SEK5 (EUR0.58) per tonne. The forecasted revenue for the year 1999 was 100 million SEK (EUR 11.6 million). The tax revenue is used for the general budget. Effectiveness and possible revisions When the tax of

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Stephan Moll, Stefan Bringezu, Dirk Assmann, Thomas Hanke, Holger Wallbaum and Raimund Bleischwitz

5. Bridging the data gap Stephan Moll, Stefan Bringezu, Dirk Assmann, Thomas Hanke, Holger Wallbaum and Raimund Bleischwitz 5.1 INTRODUCTION Research on sustainable development, strategies and actions of policy makers, business and interest groups critically rely on information. In particular long term-oriented scenarios as useful decision support tools (as analysed in the Wuppertal Institute, 2001, first interim report) require data on certain items. In this chapter we attempt to address the data gap in sustainable development policies. The chapter responds to

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Edited by Carlo Carraro and Christian Egenhofer

generation to support a larger, ageing generation. The crux of the environmental problem is to find a feasible way to leave environmental resources to future generations. Moreover, in terms of consumption, slower population growth may slow consumption and help environmental problems. On the other hand, a rapidly ageing society may use more energy-intensive technology to compensate for the inevitable labour shortage, and deteriorate the natural environment by doing so. Today, these concerns are highly applicable in Japan. The pressure created by the rapid ageing of the

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Raimund Bleischwitz

precautionary measures. Whereas cleaning-up and pollution control measures necessarily add additional costs to companies, the new approach allows for cost reduction and innovation. This is (still) beyond the usual ISO 14000 procedures. Measures aiming at recycling of waste and saving energy and other natural resources reduce existing costs within companies. In addition, new markets emerge that are triggered by both regulation and companies’ self-interest. Companies actively enhancing eco-efficiency are able to improve their product design, procurement, manufacturing processes

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Firms, Governments and Climate Policy

Incentive-based Policies for Long-term Climate Change

Edited by Carlo Carraro and Christian Egenhofer

This book analyses the policy mixes that provide the best possible incentives for firms and governments to act on climate change and sign up to international climate agreements. In doing so, the authors address a multitude of related issues including the linkages between flexible mechanisms and voluntary agreements; regulation and taxation; the opportunities and barriers of the Kyoto Protocol for industry; and the incentives for firms to undertake climate-related R & D and investments. As well as illustrating the environmental benefits and cost-effectiveness of alternative policy mixes in reducing GHG emissions, the authors also offer sensible policy prescriptions for increasing the numbers of countries that ratify and implement climate agreements.
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Eco-Efficiency, Regulation and Sustainable Business

Towards a Governance Structure for Sustainable Development

Edited by Raimund Bleischwitz and Peter Hennicke

This book presents important new research on applied eco-efficiency concepts throughout Europe. The aim of eco-efficiency is to achieve market-based measures of environmental protection, in order to enhance the prospects for sustainable development and achieve positive economic and ecological benefits.
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Leo Schrattenholzer, Asami Miketa, Keywan Riahi and Richard Alexander Roehrl

heptagon representation with seven variables, five of which are describing the values of scenario variables in the year 2100, one a cumulative figure up to that year, and one describing a growth rate. The seven variables are (a) CO2 emissions, expressed in billion (109) tons of carbon, (b) specific carbon emissions per unit of primary energy, expressed in grams of carbon per megajoule, (c) total primary energy consumption up to the year 2100, expressed in zetajoules (1021 joules), (d) specific primary-energy consumption per GDP, expressed in megajoules per US dollar (1990