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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

use of land). Some of that runoff is extracted, at rates that depend on levels of population, industry and agriculture. Most of the extracted water is returned, 5 together with contaminants, the level of which depends on the degree to which governments control pollution. Other water is taken for inter-basin transfers, at rates that depend on political decisions within the central government and the Shanghai government. Those decisions, in turn, are influenced by demand (from northern China and Shanghai) from people, industry and agriculture, as well as by

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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

population and economy is growing fast. The municipality was home to more than 24 million people in 2015, an increase of over 5 million since 2005. 2 Its economy has grown faster than the national average: in the period 1997–2007, Shanghai’s average annual rate of growth of real gross domestic product (GDP) 3 was 12.8 per cent, and since then it has averaged 6.4 per cent. The municipality is at the heart of one of the most densely populated regions on earth, the Changjiang delta region, home to more than 120 million people. The people and institutions of Shanghai draw

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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

‘… consists of intersecting and overlapping natural and human-built systems, which together constitute ecotechnological systems’, or in our language, the assemblages we have called socio-environments. An influential application of these ideas is the concept of the hydrosocial cycle (Bakker 2012; Swyngedouw 2007). As developed by Linton and Budds (2014), the hydrosocial cycle incorporates the ideas that: the need to manage water affects the organisation of society in important ways, which in turn modify the flow of water and give rise to new forms of social organisation

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Michael Webber, Jon Barnett, Brian Finlayson and Mark Wang

mark on China’s water landscape – these too are debated and mutable. So, the ‘… question of how, by which actors, through which strategies and with what interests and consequences the “natural” and the “social” boundaries of [socio-environmental regions] are conceptualized and materialized … is fundamental’ (Boelens et al. 2016: 2). Critical geography offers a variety of tools through which to examine the construction of these regions of water politics (ably summarised by Rogers and Crow-Miller 2017). Many of these tools – such as the hydrosocial cycle, socio

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

percent, 36 percent, 29 percent, and 46 percent from 2011 according to data from multiple provincial data sources. HUKOU AND URBAN POPULATION GROWTH Population Growth in China There was very little difference in the growth rate between China’s urban and rural population during the Mao era. What did occur was mostly the result of natural increase. With reform and opening up in the early 1980s, as restrictions on migration were relaxed and demand for factory labor in cities exploded, tens of millions of former peasants migrated from farms and villages to cities and towns

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

, is grouped with Sichuan province. The four maps in Figure 4.1 display the results visually. At the beginning of reform and opening up, urbanization rates of all provinces except three provincial level municipalities in China were low. This contrasted sharply with urbanization rates in the three municipalities directly under the central government—Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai, all of which had urbanization rates higher than 50 percent at the time reform and opening began. The urbanization rates of the three northeastern provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning

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Understanding China's Urbanization

The Great Demographic, Spatial, Economic, and Social Transformation

Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

China’s urbanization is one of the great earth-changing phenomena of recent times. The way in which China continues to urbanize will have a critical impact on the world economy, global climate change, international relations and a host of other critical issues. Understanding and responding to China’s urbanization is of paramount importance to everyone. This book represents a unique exploration of the demographic, spatial, economic and social aspects of China’s urban transformation.
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T. E. Woronov

are ranked according to their success rate at producing students who do well on the UEE and enter universities; ‘key’ (zhongdian) schools are at the top of the academic hierarchy. The ways that the UEE drives curriculum and pedagogy throughout the Chinese education system have garnered tremendous attention, both in China and among the foreign media and researchers. Extensive research has described in detail the misery that this exam generates among young people and their families, as well as the ways the exam restricts learning to memorization tasks (e.g. Kipnis

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

though the population growth of many smaller developing countries is faster. For millennia China’s population has been distributed unevenly and during the last thirty years migration has accentuated the imbalance. Population clusters in the great river deltas, where there is fertile arable land, and areas that are accessible. The annual average growth rate of the urban population in a number of large city-egions has exceeded 5 percent. These densely agglomerated r city- egions are developing into Large City Clusters (hereafter LCCs) or r megalopolises. Most of the

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

an official town—the town proper; the latter to p ermanent residents of the town region. China had 19,683 official towns in 2011. The average population in a town seat was 12,500 and the average population in a town region was 44,000 (NBSC- ts, 2012). c In rural and urban censuses for the purposes of calculating China’s urbanization rate, official town seats are categorized as urban, and their 274 Understanding China’s urbanization residents are included in the urban population. Townships and rural regions of official towns are categorized as rural and their