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Pierre Beckouche

poor planning regulation at the local level, the consequences are quite heavy on the natural environment as well as on the further capability of cities to develop collective transport. 3.1.5.  Social Disparities and Dynamics The total population in Morocco was estimated at 33 million people in 2012, rising from 12 million in 1960. The fertility rate, which was seven children per woman in the 1960s, had dropped to 2.2 in 2011, with the marriage age increasing greatly even in the rural areas. The prevalence of contraceptive use reached 67% of women aged 15–49 in 2011

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Pierre Beckouche

it as an applicant country for membership in 2005. With 285 million inhabitants (2011), the Mediterranean neighbour countries comprise by far the largest European neighbourhood in terms of population, and it will be more and more so owing to population declines in other neighbourhoods (including the Western Balkans and the eastern neighbourhood and Russia), where demographic decline hampers economic development. Another asset of the Mediterranean neighbourhood is its natural resources, namely energy. However, there are shortcomings too, for example, climate change

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Europe’s Mediterranean Neighbourhood

An Integrated Geography

Edited by Pierre Beckouche

Illustrated with pioneering maps and with country analyses from a network of researchers from across the Mediterranean, this book takes a territorial approach as a way toward a shared vision for a truly integrated Euro-Mediterranean region. At a time when the region is undergoing rapid change, the main goal of the book is to challenge misconceptions with common geographic data on issues such as transport, energy, agriculture, water and to suggest avenues for policies common to Europe and its southern neighbours.
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Edited by Richard Sharpley and David Harrison

Tourism is integral to local, regional and national development policies; as a major global economic sector, it has the potential to underpin economic growth and wider development. Yet, transformations in both the nature of tourism and the dynamic environment within which it occurs give rise to new questions with regards to its developmental role. This Research Agenda offers a state-of-the-art review of the research into the tourism-development nexus. Exploring issues including governance, policy, philanthropy, poverty reduction and tourism consumption, it identifies significant gaps in the literature, and proposes new and sometimes provocative avenues for future research.
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Corruption, Natural Resources and Development

From Resource Curse to Political Ecology

Edited by Aled Williams and Philippe Le Billon

This book provides a fresh and extensive discussion of corruption issues in natural resources sectors. Reflecting on recent debates in corruption research and revisiting resource curse challenges in light of political ecology approaches, this volume provides a series of nuanced and policy-relevant case studies analyzing patterns of corruption around natural resources and options to reach anti-corruption goals. The potential for new variations of the resource curse in the forest and urban land sectors and the effectiveness of anti-corruption policies in resource sectors are considered in depth. Corruption in oil, gas, mining, fisheries, biofuel, wildlife, forestry and urban land are all covered, and potential solutions discussed.
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Tony Addison

, manufacturing as a sector contracted across much of the region. There was a mismatch between the structural reform and stabilization agendas, advanced respectively by the World Bank and the IMF. Problems in reform sequencing were not confined to Africa, but the region was ­especially vulnerable to policy mismatch, given its inherent economic ­weakness. Zimbabwe is an illustrative case. Premature financial ­liberalization led to a jump in interest rates that contributed to a surge in the cost of servicing public debt. This compounded the problem of restoring fiscal

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Giovanni Andrea Cornia

1998 and 2009, and remained almost unchanged until 2013, while the number of center and center-right regimes fell from 16 to 5 (Figure 6.5). As suggested by various issues of the Latino Barometro (http://www.latinobarometro. org/lat.jsp), a major factor behind this political turnaround was growing frustration with the disappointing results of the Washington Consensus policies implemented in the 1980s and 1990s. These policies, as well as the world recession and debt crisis of the 1980s triggered by the massive US interest rate increase of 1979, led to a sharp GDP

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Birthe Eriksen and Tina Søreide

-for-development-annual-report-2014// (accessed 10 December 2015). Regarding safety standards, see Høivik et al. (2009). The tax rates are stipulated by the Petroleum Taxation Act (Act of 13 June 1975 No. 35). In 2014, Norway’s tax revenues from petroleum activities were nearly USD 1385.5 billion. The Norwegian state owns holdings in a number of oil and gas fields, pipelines and onshore facilities. This state ownership is organized under SDFI (the State’s Direct Financial Interest) and managed by Petoro, a state-owned limited company, https://www. petoro.no/home. Hereafter referred to as Statoil

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Michael Dunford and Weidong Liu

as national leaders. Fù chù and chù serve as high-level officials. In 2012, there were 900,000 fù kē and kē, 600,000 fù chù and chù, and just 40,000 fù tīng and tīng jú. After the several decades required to reach the jú level, a few can reach provincial ministerial level positions, with yet fewer reaching the Central Committee and national leadership (Li 2013). Although a range of performance indicators are used, economic growth has played a predominant role in the cadre evaluation system and has led to intense competition to generate high GDP growth rates. At the

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Edited by Barney Warf

The Handbook on the Geographies of Corruption offers a comprehensive overview of how corruption varies across the globe. It explores the immense range of corruption among countries, and how this reflects levels of wealth, the centralization of power, colonial legacies, and different national cultures. Barney Warf presents an original and interdisciplinary collection of chapters from established researchers and leading academics that examine corruption from a spatial perspective.