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Toshitaka Gokan

can see, as shown in Table 9.1, that Japanese MNEs have different determinants for locating in the NIEs, in the ASEAN-4 and in China.9 In the case of the NIEs, Japanese MNEs expect to have steady or higher local sales in these countries. The reasons for this are the high wage rate and the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). The high wage rate in the NIEs, pointed out in Chapter 8, implies that consumers have purchasing power. Furthermore, the GSP offered preferential tariffs to products exported from the NIEs. Because the NIEs have developed sufficiently, these

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Masahisa Fujita and Nobuaki Hamaguchi

a smaller number of production locations. This, in turn, has provoked a concern over widening regional income disparities because some regions seem to attract a disproportionately large share of productive employment while others are left with only a small share. In the early 1990s, concern about the future of European integration after the establishment of the European Union (EU) in 1993 encouraged some theorists to develop models of the location of economic activities; this has become known as ‘spatial economics’. A natural question of interest was, ‘Given the

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Bryan Roberts

colonialism or, in the case of China, neo-colonialism brought no radically new sets of social and economic relationships (Raza et al. 1981; Skinner 1977). The levels of urbanization in 2000 are low in both China (36 percent) and India (28 percent) relative to most other less developed countries (Table 7.1). In the case of India, urbanization rates have remained low owing to higher rates of natural increase among the rural compared with the urban population, the scarcity of permanent job opportunities in the cities, and industrial deconcentration, particularly of household

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Ho Yeon Kim

increase in real wage rates encouraged the migration of labor-intensive manufacturing industries to Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and later to China and the countries of the ASEAN. In the late 1990s, the consultant firm of Booz, Allen and Hamilton (1997) warned that Korea was now caught in a nutcracker, being crushed by China’s low costs and Japan’s technical excellence. It is thus interesting to examine how Korean firms responded to the daunting challenge. Against the above backdrop, this chapter opens with a brief survey of the related literature. The development of Korean

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Henry Bernstein

relations through which they take place: (i) (ii) Natural/environmental conditions of farming. Productive forces or ‘powers of labour’, comprising the instruments of labour and knowledge applied in farming (and the wider culture that generates them). (iii) How access to land (the object of labour) and the tools for working it (instruments of labour) are organized. (iv) How the labour processes of farming are organized. (v) Claims on the products of farming, and how they are distributed and used for purposes of social reproduction (and accumulation). (vi) The productivity

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Fulong Wu, Chris Webster, Shenijing He and Yuting Liu

restructuring and labour redundancy (Guan, 2001). The big difference is that this is occurring in the middle of industrialization through exportoriented manufacturing. China’s economic restructuring and the associated differentiation of urban incomes, wages and fortunes involves not only de-industrialization but also a fundamental transformation of ownership from state to private sector. The accelerating number of laid-off workers since 1995 began to reveal the problem of unemployment and poverty in the cities. The official unemployment rate was 3.1 per cent in 2001, but

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Fulong Wu, Chris Webster, Shenijing He and Yuting Liu

per se, is the key to understanding the problems of poverty and starvation. Sen developed his idea through a historical study of famines, in which he noted that mass starvation was often experienced in countries where there was, in the aggregate, enough food to go round. Starvation typically occurs because of a dramatic decline in effective purchasing power, or more precisely, 185 186 Urban poverty in China of exchange rates: particularly the exchange value of labour but also of other owned assets including land, domestic and draught animals and other durable

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Michael Webber

pre-tax profits of TVEs, net of payments of rent and interest. Source: Wuzhong Almanac. Figure 3.5 Enterprise profits and household income as a share of GDP, Mudu township, 1990–2007 added in secondary industry (these estimates depend on the assumed rate of depreciation, and are adjusted for government revenue). According to these series, from about 1990 in the municipality there was a pronounced shift in the allocation of the net social product from labour to property owners. Wages that comprised about 25 per cent of secondary value added in the 1980s fell to

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Michael Webber

and improvements, and interest rates on loans have risen. (Delays will add to interest costs.) Some of the cost is paid by the central government budget and some by the provinces and municipalities that expect to receive water from the project. Most is raised by national debt, bank loans and bonds. Current cost accounting by the Ministry of Water Resources means that the price of water transferred from the Yangzi River to Beijing and Tianjin through the South–North transfer will be at least RMB 18 per m3. This is five to ten times residential water prices in China

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Michael Webber

Xishuangbanna; another ten have been built since then, including two in Zhongdian. No other places in Yunnan had four- or five-star hotels. All are foreign, state corporate, or a combination of the two. Some lowerrated hotels, of which there are at least 300, are private and more widely distributed than the higher-rated hotels. Unrated hotels and guesthouses are overwhelmingly owned by local governments or private individuals. Finally, there are investments in sightseeing activities within localities. These include facility attractions, whether natural or constructed