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Brad K. Blitz

internally displaced persons from other parts of the former Soviet Union who pose a security threat (Pilkington 2002) was made by governments composed of like-minded apparatchiks (professional members of the Communist party) (Loiberg 1998). Thus the Putin government, which successfully reprimanded regional governments for their abuse of power over taxation and natural resources, has been particularly tolerant of sub-national efforts to restrict in-migration in spite of Constitutional Court rulings and condemnations by human rights groups (Human Rights Watch 2011; Light

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Migration and Freedom

Mobility, Citizenship and Exclusion

Brad K. Blitz

Migration and Freedom is a thorough and revealing exploration of the complex relationship between mobility and citizenship in the European area. Drawing upon over 170 interviews, it provides an original account of the opportunities and challenges associated with the rights to free movement and settlement in Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Spain and Russia. It documents successful and unsuccessful settlement and establishment cases and records how both official and informal restrictions on individuals’ mobility have effectively created new categories of citizenship.
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Brad K. Blitz

summer holiday throughout his medical training as a visitor in the UK and described his decision to move to the UK as a natural progression. He told how his Spanish university did not make it easy for him to study in the UK, so he sent hundreds of letters to hospitals and as a result worked in Birmingham, Nottingham, Dublin and Sheffield over a six-year period. He stated that whereas in Spain doctors were revered, he did not receive any special treatment in the UK, making him feel welcome: ‘a normal bloke – a member of a team’ (interview with Dr. José Miralles, 13

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Marc Parés, Sonia M. Ospina and Joan Subirats

worse situation with respect to this indicator. City Council statistics also show that Nou Barris Nord has one of the highest registered unemployment rates 3 of the city (19 per cent of the working-age population in 2012): almost double the level of unemployment in the city as a whole (10.2 per cent). The same source shows that, in 2012, Ciutat Meridiana had one of the highest percentages of foreign residents in the city; the neighbourhood went from having a 5 per cent foreign population in 2001 to 36 per cent in 2012. One of the principal phenomena that have

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David McKenzie and Dean Yang

In addition to exogenous variation generated by government policy, identification of causal effects in migration research can also take advantage of other sources of exogenous variation in right-hand-side variables of interest, or so-called ‘natural experiments.’ We review here recent studies that take advantage of two types of natural experiments: exchange rate shocks experienced by migrants and weather shocks to which migrants’ origin households are exposed in the home country. 12.3.1 Impacts of Changes in Migrants’ Economic Conditions A question of general

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Fernando A. Lozano and Michael D. Steinberger

35 million people. As international migration increasingly prevails across different regions and countries it is natural to ask how do economists address the causes and consequences of these flows, and what are the strengths and shortcomings of the methodologies employed by economists? The economics of immigration is a burgeoning field whose interest and research expands over many facets of immigration. The evolution of economists’ interest on immigration is evidenced by the fact that general interest journals are increasingly publishing papers on this topic. Table

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Edward Funkhouser

emigration.1 Slightly less attractive are natural phenomena such as drought or disasters, which are likely to be exogenous, but are likely to affect certain types of households and to affect other determinants of the migration decision, such as household income. Yang (2005), for example, uses households that were affected by a strong earthquake in El Salvador as an exogenous shock that leads to emigration.2 The use of exogenous variables that affect migration also addresses the potential endogeneity of the migration and remittance decision with other outcomes of interest

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Tony Addison

, manufacturing as a sector contracted across much of the region. There was a mismatch between the structural reform and stabilization agendas, advanced respectively by the World Bank and the IMF. Problems in reform sequencing were not confined to Africa, but the region was ­especially vulnerable to policy mismatch, given its inherent economic ­weakness. Zimbabwe is an illustrative case. Premature financial ­liberalization led to a jump in interest rates that contributed to a surge in the cost of servicing public debt. This compounded the problem of restoring fiscal

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Giovanni Andrea Cornia

1998 and 2009, and remained almost unchanged until 2013, while the number of center and center-right regimes fell from 16 to 5 (Figure 6.5). As suggested by various issues of the Latino Barometro (http://www.latinobarometro. org/lat.jsp), a major factor behind this political turnaround was growing frustration with the disappointing results of the Washington Consensus policies implemented in the 1980s and 1990s. These policies, as well as the world recession and debt crisis of the 1980s triggered by the massive US interest rate increase of 1979, led to a sharp GDP

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Calogero Carletto, Alan de Brauw and Raka Banerjee

methodological considerations that should be taken into account, focusing particularly on overcoming the rare aspects of migration through alternative sampling designs. Lastly, we consider the measurement of migration and other variables of interest from the perspective of questionnaire design, VARGAS-SILVA (9781849803113) PRINT.indd 209 21/02/2012 16:53 210 Handbook of research methods in migration acknowledging the necessary trade-offs between length, content, and accuracy inherent to the implementation of a multi-topic LSMS-style survey.2 10.1 DEFINING AND MEASURING