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Energy Justice

US and International Perspectives

Edited by Raya Salter, Carmen G. Gonzalez and Elizabeth A. Kronk Warner

Energy Justice: US and International Perspectives is a pioneering analysis of energy law and policy through the framework of energy justice. While climate change has triggered unprecedented investment in renewable energy, the concept of energy justice and its practical application to energy law and policy remain under-theorized. This volume breaks new ground by examining a range of energy justice regulatory challenges from the perspective of international law, US law, and foreign domestic law. The book illuminates the theory of energy justice while emphasizing practical solutions that hasten the transition from fossil fuels and address the inequities that plague energy systems.
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Kylie Fletcher-Johnson

Apr 22 09:13:06 2015 208 Regulation of the upstream petroleum sector conservation and management of non-renewable natural resources … in the province, including laws in relation to the rate of primary production therefrom’.37 Further, the provincial governments may also make laws in relation to: the export from the province to another part of Canada of the primary production from non-renewable natural resources … in the province … but such laws may not authorize or provide for discrimination in prices or in supplies exported to another part of Canada.38 While

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Simon Warikiyei Amaduobogha

which laid down a basic framework for the development of petroleum and other natural resources. The Mineral Oil Ordinance stipulated, inter alia, that only British subjects or companies controlled by British subjects would be entitled to explore for petroleum resources in Nigeria. Ironically, the first company ever to engage in petroleum exploration in Nigeria was the German Bitumen Company, in 1908 around Okitipupa in present day Ondo State. This exploration effort was unsuccessful and the company terminated its operations following the outbreak of the First World

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Sebastian Eyre and Michael G. Pollitt

. If they were, how should multiple tax rates be adjusted so that any loss of utility is set at a minimum? Ramsey’s solution was to devise a proof to show that the taxation of each commodity should be inversely proportional to the elasticities of demand of the good or service that is taxed. This is particularly applicable to public utilities or the regulation of upstream natural monopolies such as transmission or distribution networks of their charging methodologies for the use of their capacity by generators and suppliers. More generally the

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Tina Hunter

greater degree of control over offshore activities,138 allowing the Norwegian government to implement its petroleum policy objectives. These policy objectives include slower rates of exploration, development of Norwegian oil companies and encouraging Norwegian industries to develop sufficient capacity to play a major role in the development of Norwegian petroleum resources.139 An important reason for the use of discretion in the award of licenses in Norway is the high regard for other natural resource sectors, particularly fishing. Petroleum production is seen as one of

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Rafael Leal-Arcas and Jan Wouters

instrument of international law, being a culmination of the development of investment and trade protection mechanisms in international energy. Within the EU, the ECT has been considered an external energy policy instrument of the EU. Despite the generally widespread perception that it was Russia who lost interest in the ECT (especially following the Yukos case), which culminated in the withdrawal of Russia from its provisional application of the ECT in 2009 and the accompanying statement of the Russian Government that it had no intention of ratifying the ECT, the EU has

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Ernst Nordtveit

JOBNAME: Hunter PAGE: 1 SESS: 6 OUTPUT: Wed Apr 22 09:13:06 2015 5. Regulation of the Norwegian upstream petroleum sector1 Ernst Nordtveit 1. HISTORY AND OVERVIEW OF NORWEGIAN PETROLEUM ACTIVITIES Norway became a petroleum producing country in the early 1970s. Up to the early 1960s it was not expected that petroleum could be found in Norwegian land or sea areas. The discovery of natural gas in Groningen in the Netherlands in 1959, however, led to an interest from some oil companies to explore for petroleum further north in the North Sea. In October 1962 the

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Regulating Offshore Petroleum Resources

The British and Norwegian Models

Edited by Eduardo G. Pereira and Henrik Bjørnebye

Regulating Offshore Petroleum Resources examines the main regulatory characteristics of the Norwegian and the British models for petroleum exploration, production and supply. The authors explore to what extent these models are relevant for the design of regulatory models in countries with significant existing petroleum resources. The applicability of these regulatory models to countries with potential petroleum resources is also assessed.
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Andrey Konoplyanik

only the right of using these resources – to produce and export them (the host state preserving the sovereignty over natural resources in place). They included the modernized concessions (starting from 1948) and production sharing agreements and risk service contracts (starting from the 1960s). The granting of the right to subsoil use on a fixed-term and reimbursable basis currently constitutes the basis for all these systems of subsoil use licensing, which are based on the public or civil law. It is the wide range of production agreements (petroleum arrangements

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Fabien A. Roques

Europe as of early 2007 with a 0.5 per cent annual cost escalation rate. For a discount rate of 10 per cent, the coal plant has a much higher NPV (€342/kW) than the nuclear and CCGT plant (respectively €74/kW and €−48/kW). With an 8 per cent discount rate, all technologies have positive NPVs, the nuclear plant NPV increasing relatively more than other technologies as nuclear is the most capital intensive technology. These results are consistent with recent levelized costs studies (IEA 2006; IEA/NEA 2005): the increase of natural gas prices has made coal-fired plant