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David Reisman

.H. Green was in no doubt that the life in common was the sole source of reciprocal obligation. Negatively speaking, he wrote, nature has no imperative: ‘If the common interest requires it, no right can be alleged against it … There is no such natural right to do as one likes irrespectively of society’ (Green, 1941 [1879]: 109–10). Positively speaking, he emphasised, human rights are other people: ‘A right is a power of which the exercise by the individual or by some body of men is recognised by a society, either as itself directly essential to a common good, or as

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Richard Burroughs

of feedback and policy formulation extends back over three quarters of a century. Schattschneider (1935) juxtaposed the limited economic value of tariffs to the nation with their vast success in cultivating i­ nterest groups who benefited from the introduction of tariffs. He observed that ‘New policies create new politics’ (Schattschneider, 1935, p. 288), and those new politics advanced the needs of special interests not the nation. Special interest groups advocate for policies that favor their needs over those of the broader public. Feedback from special interests

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David Reisman

newspapers and the internet provide across-the-board background. Hospital websites describe their facilities and their success rates. Family doctors and commercial facilitators fine-tune general knowledge to the specific needs of the medical one-off. Information is all around. Disclosure is good business where the suppliers are led by self-interest to publicise their unique selling points. Company secrets do not get the good word out. A practice will want to make known that it can advise on diet, allergies and natural childbirth, that it works to a fixed roster of

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David Reisman

, concealed or unknown, the insurer has the guarantee that it is enlisting a representative cross-section. Adverse selection is ruled out save in the minority of cases where a sick worker joins an organisation specifically to access its medical insurance. The insurer has the confidence that very bad risks would have been weeded out by the firm’s own medical tests before a new worker was put on the payroll. Large numbers enable the carrier to set an experience-rated premium based on the risk profile of the firm and its industry. Statistical deviants like older workers and

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Edited by Michael Howlett and Ishani Mukherjee

Policy formulation relies upon the interplay of knowledge-based analysis of issues with power-based considerations, such as the political assessment of the costs and benefits of proposed actions, and its effects on the partisan and electoral concerns of governments. Policy scholars have long been interested in how governments successfully create, deploy and utilise policy instruments, but the literature on policy formulation has, until now, remained fragmented. This comprehensive Handbook unites original scholarship on policy tools and design, with contributions examining policy actors and the roles they play in the formulation process.
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Michael Howlett and Jeremy Rayner

into policy ‘portfolios’ or ‘mixes’ in an effort to attain policy goals. Analysing policy design in the context of such policy portfolios raises a series of questions about how exactly the superiority of the design of one mix over another can be assessed ex ante. A design perspective in general assumes that not all designs are equal nor is one design just as good as any other, and a subject of much interest to students of policy designs, therefore, is the nature of the evaluative criteria which can be used to identify ‘better’ or more ‘intelligent’ designs and

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David Reisman

return speedily to work, express satisfaction with the service, experience less-than-average rates of cross-infection, do not suffer from an allergic reaction or an addiction, are not readmitted precipitately with complications or a relapse, enjoy a longer life-expectancy because the affliction is gone, one inference might be that the quality of medical attention was good. Quality in such a case is being shadowed by the outcomes. If the diagnosis is accurate, the dosage appropriate and the treatment works, then the inference is that the quality must be good. If the

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Michael Howlett

(e.g. via interest rate policy) Figure 6.3  Consumption and distribution effects of the use of substantive tools more esoteric – for example, ‘transferable quotas’ used to limit and control everything from fish harvests to CO2 emissions, or ‘government advertising’, used to inform and promote individuals and companies and other actors to stop smoking or lose weight, or in the case of companies to support their employees’ healthy life choices. Many permutations and combinations of such tools exist, such as when a government agency runs a stop smoking campaign while

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David Reisman

on the map: ‘The communitarian would argue for individuals being valuers as long as these individuals are allowed to reflect their history and their community … Values, in other words, are context specific’ (Mooney, 1991: 51). The public interest is here and now. It is thee and me. He and she will have to fit in. Social values separate the needs from the wants. They decree that the ecstatic trance of the drug addict is neither a real need nor a valid want. They in that way violate the consumer sovereignty of the self-defining monad to purchase opium even as they

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Markku Lehtonen

purposes, functions, disciplinary backgrounds, application areas and levels, and theoretical and normative underpinnings. Gallopin (1996, p. 108) defines indicators as ‘variables that summarize or otherwise simplify relevant information, make visible or perceptible phenomena of ­interest, and quantify, measure, and communicate relevant information’, while Jackson (2011, p. 15) describes a performance indicator as an ‘unbiased estimate of true performance which cannot be measured directly’. This definition captures two essential features of indicators: that of ‘indication