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Todd W. Moss and Moriah Meyskens

(Figure 7.1). A performance trajectory is the rate of improvement in a certain performance attribute (dotted line), while a customer needs trajectory is the rate of improvement in a customer’s desired performance in that same attribute (solid line). Over time, a DI originally targeting an emerging market may meet an existing customer’s needs at a better price point than an existing product or service, which then becomes supplanted by the DI. In light of Figure 7.1, resource dependence explains why an incumbent firm might continue to invest in sustaining innovations, or

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Francesco Perrini and Clodia Vurro

in the pursuit of the social mission, motivating personnel, partners and stakeholders around specific tasks and expected results, while reducing ambiguity by its support to procedure formalization. 42 KICKUL 9781781003589 PRINT (M2996).indd 42 05/10/2012 10:32 A multi-stakeholder perspective on social business planning 43 INTRODUCTION Over the last decade, social entrepreneurship (SE) has commanded considerable interest in the literature as being an innovative use of resources to explore and exploit opportunities that meet a social need in a sustainable way

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Elizabeth Bennett, Donald Gregory, Robert Leaver and Kelly Ramirez

one hundred ventures – to better understand this need. Since then, the organization has been working to build an effective ecosystem that enables social enterprises to thrive by responding to the needs identified in the survey. This ecosystem approach enhances four services: (i) building a community of interest; (ii) incubating new ventures; (iii) helping existing enterprises to grow; and (iv) investing in promising ventures. In less than two years, the community of interest has grown to more than 700 individuals, including over 120 social enterprises, and at least

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Aparna Katre, Paul Salipante, Sheri Perelli and Barbara Bird

breaking even (Wallace, 2005) and often have lower than market rates of return on investments. This limits their ability to attract traditional business investors. Pressure for self-sufficiency and sustainability with scarce financial resources drives opportunistic behaviors to lower the cost of resource acquisition and operations. KICKUL 9781781003589 PRINT (M2996).indd 188 05/10/2012 10:32 Balancing competition and collaboration 189 Table 8.1 Potential collaborative and competitive orientation of social ventures Mission best interest Business best interest With

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Carina A. Holmgren

association started ‘the innovation contest’ in 1979 to stimulate young people’s creativity and early awaken an interest in natural science, technology and innovation. The purpose of the extension was to inspire a new generation of inventors and entrepreneurs. (Finn-upp, 2010a.) With the focus on problem-solving and creativity the actors could easily position the innovation contest within the entrepreneurship discourse. Even if the actual objectives of starting the innovation concept differ from that of entrepreneurship policy, they harmonize, and the actors responsible

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Katja Lindqvist

enterprises), in both business and the arts. Thus, the social context co-creating individuals on both arenas needs to be broadened even beyond contemporary perceptions of entrepreneurs and artists enabled by their social and economic networks. Also, consumers construct the Entrepreneur and the Artist through their appreciation or lack of interest in particular novelties. Entrepreneurial offers need to be appreciated in order to actually become consumed, and in the same way artworks are completed only in their consumption moment. Therefore, an aspect of both entrepreneurship

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Karin Berglund and Bengt Johannisson

entrepreneurship is that they (1) mobilize initiatives, (2) provide an innovative force, and (3) channel a value creation power (see Gawell et al. 2009). While the notion of an ‘innovative force that channels value creation’ is part of the traditional entrepreneurship discourse, that of mobilizing initiatives is of particular interest to societal entrepreneurship. At an individual level mobilizing emphasizes how men and women in everyday life become enrolled in entrepreneurial practices without viewing themselves as entrepreneurs in the first place (Holmquist and Sundin 2002

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Ranjula Bali Swain

loans up to a maximum of SEK 100 000 (€10 700). The loan is given to companies that have the potential to survive in all kinds of fields. ALMI does not take any collateral for this loan and the firms have up to five years to repay it. During the first year, the interest rate is reduced and ALMI’s basic interest rate (5 per cent, August 2007) is charged. However, from the second year onwards the market interest rate is charged on the loan.3 ALMI helps enterprises with business development, providing financial services for innovations and start-ups and established

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Eva Illouz

1950s the Mayoist consensus about human relations was challenged by the ‘new’ view that conflicts of interest between labour and management were natural and inevitable, the language of emotions and human relations persisted, for it had become part of the conventions that psychologists and management theories had successfully established. The texts of the 1940s and 1950s still typically postulated that the ‘feelings’ of people were more important than the ‘logic’ of organisation intangibles, such as charts, rules and directives (Stagner, 1948: 131; emphasis added) As

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Patrick A.M. Vermeulen and Annekathrin Ellersiek

Journal (2000) and the presence of specialized journals such as Organization and Environment and Business Strategy and the Environment further illustrate the increased academic interest in the natural environment. Various reasons exist for increased ecological responses, including legislation, stakeholder pressures, ethical motives and economic opportunities (Bansal and Roth, 2000). An important body of environmentally orientated research in the strategic management tradition has focused on the last reason; more specifically, scholars in this stream of research