You are looking at 1 - 10 of 43 items :

  • natural rate of interest x
  • Asian Development x
  • Development Studies x
Clear All
You do not have access to this content

Bryan Roberts

colonialism or, in the case of China, neo-colonialism brought no radically new sets of social and economic relationships (Raza et al. 1981; Skinner 1977). The levels of urbanization in 2000 are low in both China (36 percent) and India (28 percent) relative to most other less developed countries (Table 7.1). In the case of India, urbanization rates have remained low owing to higher rates of natural increase among the rural compared with the urban population, the scarcity of permanent job opportunities in the cities, and industrial deconcentration, particularly of household

This content is available to you

Fulong Wu, Chris Webster, Shenijing He and Yuting Liu

restructuring and labour redundancy (Guan, 2001). The big difference is that this is occurring in the middle of industrialization through exportoriented manufacturing. China’s economic restructuring and the associated differentiation of urban incomes, wages and fortunes involves not only de-industrialization but also a fundamental transformation of ownership from state to private sector. The accelerating number of laid-off workers since 1995 began to reveal the problem of unemployment and poverty in the cities. The official unemployment rate was 3.1 per cent in 2001, but

You do not have access to this content

Henry Bernstein

relations through which they take place: (i) (ii) Natural/environmental conditions of farming. Productive forces or ‘powers of labour’, comprising the instruments of labour and knowledge applied in farming (and the wider culture that generates them). (iii) How access to land (the object of labour) and the tools for working it (instruments of labour) are organized. (iv) How the labour processes of farming are organized. (v) Claims on the products of farming, and how they are distributed and used for purposes of social reproduction (and accumulation). (vi) The productivity

You do not have access to this content

Fulong Wu, Chris Webster, Shenijing He and Yuting Liu

per se, is the key to understanding the problems of poverty and starvation. Sen developed his idea through a historical study of famines, in which he noted that mass starvation was often experienced in countries where there was, in the aggregate, enough food to go round. Starvation typically occurs because of a dramatic decline in effective purchasing power, or more precisely, 185 186 Urban poverty in China of exchange rates: particularly the exchange value of labour but also of other owned assets including land, domestic and draught animals and other durable

You do not have access to this content

Michael Webber

pre-tax profits of TVEs, net of payments of rent and interest. Source: Wuzhong Almanac. Figure 3.5 Enterprise profits and household income as a share of GDP, Mudu township, 1990–2007 added in secondary industry (these estimates depend on the assumed rate of depreciation, and are adjusted for government revenue). According to these series, from about 1990 in the municipality there was a pronounced shift in the allocation of the net social product from labour to property owners. Wages that comprised about 25 per cent of secondary value added in the 1980s fell to

You do not have access to this content

Michael Webber

and improvements, and interest rates on loans have risen. (Delays will add to interest costs.) Some of the cost is paid by the central government budget and some by the provinces and municipalities that expect to receive water from the project. Most is raised by national debt, bank loans and bonds. Current cost accounting by the Ministry of Water Resources means that the price of water transferred from the Yangzi River to Beijing and Tianjin through the South–North transfer will be at least RMB 18 per m3. This is five to ten times residential water prices in China

You do not have access to this content

Michael Webber

Xishuangbanna; another ten have been built since then, including two in Zhongdian. No other places in Yunnan had four- or five-star hotels. All are foreign, state corporate, or a combination of the two. Some lowerrated hotels, of which there are at least 300, are private and more widely distributed than the higher-rated hotels. Unrated hotels and guesthouses are overwhelmingly owned by local governments or private individuals. Finally, there are investments in sightseeing activities within localities. These include facility attractions, whether natural or constructed

You do not have access to this content

Gail Mummert

, and two nation-states to begin to understand caregiving patterns in which self-interest and emotional ties are inextricably entwined. Long (1989: 2) defines a social interface as ‘a critical point of intersection or linkage between different social systems, fields or levels of social order where structural discontinuities, based upon differences of normative value and social interest, are most likely to be found’. He goes on to stress that ‘the concept implies some kind of face-to-face encounter between individuals or units representing different interests and

You do not have access to this content

Zhou Daming and Huang Xueliang

people to migrate abroad or to other places in China. This situation was interrupted, however, following the formation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 and the introduction of collective control over production. This collective system lasted up until the late 1970s/early 1980s when it was replaced by the Household Responsibility System. At the same time, the building of a large dam made people less vulnerable to the vagaries of natural and man-made disasters. Today Phoenix is an administrative village (xingzhengcun) that consists of four natural villages

You do not have access to this content

Michael Webber

competition between existing systems of organising production and are open to shocks from the natural environment or unrelated social pressures.16 2 THE DAIRY ECONOMY Cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo have long been raised in China for milk, though principally by ethnic minorities, including Mongols. However, large-scale dairying and the kinds of businesses that now produce cows’ milk are both creatures of the economic reforms since the late 1970s. Three shifts are important. To the farmers, the most critical was the redistribution of communal land to peasant households