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Gerald A. McBeath and Tse-Kang Leng

China and Taiwan have roughly one-eighth of the world’s known species. Their approaches to biodiversity issues thus have global as well as national repercussions. Gerald McBeath and Tse-Kang Leng explore the ongoing conflicts between economic development, typically pursued by businesses and governments, and communities seeking to preserve and protect local human and ecosystem values.
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Gerald A. McBeath and Tse-Kang Leng

of continued expansion in number of PAs, with attempts at rationalization of the overall system. Protected areas were included within China’s Biodiversity Action Plan, and in 1995 the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) pledged US$18 million to improve management of nature reserves. Two other factors led to an exponential increase in protected areas: natural disasters and regional economic development projects. Large-scale droughts and floods in 1997 and 1998 alerted elites to the significant rate of ecological deterioration, which prompted Premier Zhu Rongji’s ban

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Suthawan Sathirathai and Edward B. Barbier

discount rate. 1. APPENDIX Using data and information from the work of Lynne et al. (1981) which studied the relationship of natural marsh to the economic productivity of blue crab on Florida’s Gulf Coast, Ellis and Fisher (1987) developed a static optimization model using a Cobb–Douglas relationship to represent production of blue crab. The cost-minimization problem faced by a price-taking fishing industry is min L = cE + l(X–mEaAb), E – (11A.1) – where E is human effort as measured by the number of crab traps set; A is coastal wetland area in acres, which is

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Gerald A. McBeath and Tse-Kang Leng

comprehensive data bases on biodiversity.3 Ecology as a discipline is barely two decades old. Although China has benefited from foreign expertise, this tends to be localized to specific regions and species. Commentators often speak of the ‘ten lost years’ of higher education due to the Cultural Revolution, which had an extremely deleterious effect on the natural sciences. Even after the onset of reforms in the late 1970s, professors, curricula, and textbooks remained out-of-date. One of our respondents, reflecting on his undergraduate education in the early 1980s, recalled

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Ruangrai Tokrisna

density, relying on mainly ready-mixed feed. Semi-intensive and extensive farms were found only in Muang District of Nakhon Si Thammarat (10 farms). Semi-intensive farms were shrimp farms with a low stocking density, relying on natural larvae while stocking as an addition to natural feed abundance. Semi-intensive farms used some ready-mixed feed at a lower rate than the intensive farms. They were usually those farms that had been lost to disease. After a while, when the environmental conditions were better, owing to the decrease in numbers of shrimp farms in the area

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Gerald A. McBeath and Tse-Kang Leng

conservation in China and Taiwan well as informal processes that attempt to conserve biodiversity, are not only in the interest of China and Taiwan, and the East Asian region, but also the planet as a whole. We introduce the topic of the governance of biodiversity conservation through a brief examination of the nature of the problem and then a discussion of the significance of China and Taiwan in the global biodiversity challenges. Following that, we consider the root and primary causes of biodiversity loss. We turn then to a discussion of the contribution that comparative

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Wattana Sugunnasil and Suthawan Sathirathai

10. Coastal communities, mangrove loss and shrimp farming: social and institutional perspectives Wattana Sugunnasil and Suthawan Sathirathai BACKGROUND When natural resources such as mangroves are depleted at an alarming rate, it is obviously a question of mismanagement. As in the case of terrestrial forests in Thailand, mangroves are under the jurisdiction of the state through the care of the Royal Forestry Department (RFD). However, in practice, local coastal communities play significant roles in the use and management of the resources. This chapter will

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Gerald A. McBeath and Tse-Kang Leng

nature of policy statement than statute, the laws are transparent and enforceable. They can be broadly classified into four types: general environmental protection, pollution prevention, ecosystem protection, and species protection. China’s basic environmental law is the Environmental Protection Law, adopted in 1979 and amended in 1989. This legislation stipulates that governments at all levels should establish nature reserves to protect important natural ecosystems, habitats for rare and endangered wild animals and plants, watershed and relic sites. One of the chief

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Edward B. Barbier and Suthawan Sathirathai

analysis of a cross-section of 89 countries containing mangroves, the chapter was able to provide evidence that mangrove loss globally is associated with expansion of aquaculture production and primary-sector (that is, agricultural) activities more generally. In particular, low and middle-income economies, such as Thailand and other rapidly developing tropical countries, that are expanding aquaculture production and are dependent on resource-based economic development generally for current growth, tend to have high rates of coastal mangrove conversion. Part I of this

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Gerald A. McBeath and Tse-Kang Leng

implement carefully, through a host of provincial and local governments, legislation such as the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 2003 and the Wild Animal Conservation Act of 1988. One of our respondents saw two sources to administrative problems: ‘First is economic development and an awareness of differences in economic interests. Different levels of government have different interests; but our government structure is unitary, and it assumes that everyone will share the same interest. This is delusion of thought … The state does compromise, but decision