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Toshitaka Gokan

can see, as shown in Table 9.1, that Japanese MNEs have different determinants for locating in the NIEs, in the ASEAN-4 and in China.9 In the case of the NIEs, Japanese MNEs expect to have steady or higher local sales in these countries. The reasons for this are the high wage rate and the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). The high wage rate in the NIEs, pointed out in Chapter 8, implies that consumers have purchasing power. Furthermore, the GSP offered preferential tariffs to products exported from the NIEs. Because the NIEs have developed sufficiently, these

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Masahisa Fujita and Nobuaki Hamaguchi

a smaller number of production locations. This, in turn, has provoked a concern over widening regional income disparities because some regions seem to attract a disproportionately large share of productive employment while others are left with only a small share. In the early 1990s, concern about the future of European integration after the establishment of the European Union (EU) in 1993 encouraged some theorists to develop models of the location of economic activities; this has become known as ‘spatial economics’. A natural question of interest was, ‘Given the

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Ho Yeon Kim

increase in real wage rates encouraged the migration of labor-intensive manufacturing industries to Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and later to China and the countries of the ASEAN. In the late 1990s, the consultant firm of Booz, Allen and Hamilton (1997) warned that Korea was now caught in a nutcracker, being crushed by China’s low costs and Japan’s technical excellence. It is thus interesting to examine how Korean firms responded to the daunting challenge. Against the above backdrop, this chapter opens with a brief survey of the related literature. The development of Korean

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An overall model of development in Chile

Globalization and the Economic Miracles in Chile and Taiwan

Cal Clark and Evelyn A. Clark

considerable inflow of foreign capital starting in the late 1970s, primarily in the form of loans. Monetarism dovetailed well with this growing reliance on a private financial system as inflation was tamed with a combination of high interest rates, a sharp reduction in the growth of the money supply, and high exchange rates to keep the value of the peso high. Of course, such a tight monetary policy would inhibit growth in most cases by making new investments quite costly. Here, Chilean neoliberals devised an innovative escape route by integrating the country into global

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Neoliberalism and the paradoxes in economic theory

Globalization and the Economic Miracles in Chile and Taiwan

Cal Clark and Evelyn A. Clark

politically liberal governments (Gourevitch, 1986; Nau, 1990; Peters, 1991; Teeple, 1995). Economic problems elsewhere in the world also discredited the economic philosophy that had dominated the first 30 years of the postwar era. The developing world had had to borrow lavishly to finance its energy imports. This recycling of “petrodollars” from energy producers worked for a short time, but by the early 1980s led to financial crises in many developing countries when deflationary policies in the United States led to huge jumps in interest rates. In addition, the dominant

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Neoliberalism and the economic miracles in Chile and Taiwan

Globalization and the Economic Miracles in Chile and Taiwan

Cal Clark and Evelyn A. Clark

development proved to be quite impressive, although its growth rate has declined considerably over the last two decades, as is normal in post-industrial societies. Table 6.1  Indicators of Taiwanese economic and social performance 1 Notes: 1   In a few instances, the data may be for a year close to the specified one. 2   Per 1,00 live births. 3   Ratio of the income of the richest fifth of the population to that of the poorest fifth. Sources: CEPD (1987); CEPD (209); National Development Council (2014). Taiwan’s development was clearly driven by exports

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Edited by Sören Eriksson

This detailed book explores and provides insights into the development and transformation of various clusters, economies and industrial sectors in East and Southeast Asia.
Open access

Hans-Peter Brunner

1.  The impact of regional cooperation and integration drivers on economic productivity and welfare, with particular attention to Southeast Asia INTRODUCTION Geography and related histories shape regional cooperation and integration (RCI), and factor markets (human resource composition and natural resources). In the early 1990s, regional economic integration efforts in Asia and Europe were boosted by geopolitical events in both continents with the disappearance of the Soviet empire. Also in the early 1990s, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) began supporting

Open access

Hans-Peter Brunner

. Vol. 2, no. 1. Ames, M. and M. Naaman. 2007. Why we tag: motivations for annotation in mobile and online media. In Proceedings of the Special Interest Group on Computer–Human Interaction (SIGCHI) Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM Press. Amin, A. and S. Hakimi. 1973. Graphs with given connectivity and independence number or networks with given measures of vulnerability and survivability. IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory. Vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 2–10. Anderson, C. 2008. The end of theory. Wired Magazine. Vol. 16, no. 7, p. 71

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Innovation Networks and the New Asian Regionalism

A Knowledge Platform on Economic Productivity

Hans-Peter Brunner

The rise of Asia, as well as the future of regional cooperation and integration (RCI) the world over, will be profoundly influenced by the challenges of slowing productivity growth, increasing economic inequalities and systemic vulnerabilities. Such structural reform issues will require RCI policies that complement domestic policy reform. This unique book explains what drives the regional economic integration of nations and their contribution to national knowledge capital. It also lays out how such beneficial integration can generate broad-based, equitable wealth in Europe and Asia.