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Ye Liu

infrastructure has had direct implications on educational attainment. Evidence from African countries and Brazil demonstrates dramatic regional differences in educational attainment, as measured by trends in attendance and completion rates since the expansion of educational opportunities (Rigotti and Fletcher 2001; ORC/Macro 2000). A second type of research highlights the changes in politics and governance in education and the implications of these changes for geographical inequality. Literature in development studies argues that widening geographical inequality has been

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Zhongwei Zhao, Hongbo Jia and Jiaying Zhao

generally related to and an indication of the stage of epidemiological transition or changes in the major causes of death (Omran 1971, 1998; Olshansky and Ault 1986). Significant disparities in morbidity and causes of death are widely observed in China. According to the National Health Services Survey conducted in 2008, in more developed areas, prevalence rates of infectious diseases, digestive diseases, and injury and poisoning tended to be lower, while rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and malignant neoplasm tended to be higher. Relatedly, the prevalence rate of

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Ole Bruun

18.  Climate, environment and State–society relations in the mobilisation for welfare in China Ole Bruun INTRODUCTION With industrialisation firmly rooted in economic growth priorities, contemporary China has, from the outset, relegated environmental controls as a secondary concern. Thirty years of unbridled economic growth have exacted a huge toll on the natural environment, and inevitably also on human health. The country is now facing tremendous public health and welfare challenges from urban air pollution, toxic emissions from industry and power plants

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Edited by Beatriz Carrillo, Johanna Hood and Paul Kadetz

The Handbook is a timely compilation dedicated to exploring a rare diversity of perspectives and content on the development, successes, reforms and challenges within China’s contemporary welfare system. It showcases an extensive introduction and 20 original chapters by leading and emerging area specialists who explore a century of welfare provision from the Nationalist era, up to and concentrating on economic reform and marketisation (1978 to the present). Organised around five key concerns (social security and welfare; emerging issues and actors; gaps; future challenges) chapters draw on original case-based research from diverse disciplines and perspectives, engage existing literature and further key debates.
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T. E. Woronov

are ranked according to their success rate at producing students who do well on the UEE and enter universities; ‘key’ (zhongdian) schools are at the top of the academic hierarchy. The ways that the UEE drives curriculum and pedagogy throughout the Chinese education system have garnered tremendous attention, both in China and among the foreign media and researchers. Extensive research has described in detail the misery that this exam generates among young people and their families, as well as the ways the exam restricts learning to memorization tasks (e.g. Kipnis

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Wanning Sun

permissiveness and lust are often associated with exploitation, oppression or moral decay, performed by class enemies and individuals representing reactionary forces, and, in opposition to this, the revolutionary heroes and heroines are portrayed in a way which de-sexualizes them, thus symbolizing their political correctness and moral purity. Display of sexual desire as a natural, instinctual expression is seen to be incompatible with the revolutionary causes they embody. Cai’s analysis of a range of literary works, including novels such as Xiao Erhei Gets Married (Xiao Erhei

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Song Yu

married between 1948 and 1976 took account of both class labels and class-origin labels when choosing a partner (Xu 2000). Understandably, the cadres and soldiers tended to choose young, good-looking urban women who were politically respectable and reliable and who had regular employment. If not all the conditions could be met, it was common for them to settle for beauty (Zhang, Z. 2009). The popularity of cadres and soldiers in the marriage market and the pragmatic choices commonly made were in part responsible for the comparatively high divorce rates among couples

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Yingjie Guo

overview and case studies of class and stratification in the PRC, focusing on the post-Mao era. Change is a central thread running through the handbook. Specifically, it addresses the growing interest in fluctuations in the significance of class from the Mao era to the post-Mao era and the transformation of the PRC’s class map, status order, structures of inequality, causal components contributing to life chances, and class experiences. The changes in this regard are part and parcel of China’s transition since 1978 from a command to market economy and from a totalitarian

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Edited by Yingjie Guo

This comprehensive, interdisciplinary Handbook illustrates the patterns of class transformation in China since 1949, situating them in their historical context. Presenting detailed case studies of social stratification and class formation in a wide range of settings, the expert contributors provide valuable insights into multiple aspects of China’s economy, polity and society. The Handbook on Class and Social Stratification in China explores largely neglected contemporary topics such as women’s social mobility in relation to marriage and the high school entrance exam as a class sorter, placing it at the forefront of progressive literature.
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Xiaoyan Lei, Chuanchuan Zhang and Yaohui Zhao

.0 6.0 6.8 7.6 8.3 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.1 Note:  Table shows years of contribution at five-­year intervals. Source:  Authors’ estimates. the income dynamic of the rural household, it is also assumed that the premium increases at the same rate as net income. At the highest premium of CNY500 per year, 40 years of contributions only yield a replacement rate of 20.7 percent (Table 18.7). The guiding principles also require that funds in individual accounts are deposited with commercial banks, accruing at the yearly interest rate. A key parameter of the individual