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Xin Meng and Chris Manning

between 1878 and 1882, but by 1979 the ratio had dropped to 11 per cent (Moriya 1963: 238-9; Sorensen 2004). A similar process is occurring in China and Indonesia at a much faster speed. Twenty to thirty years ago, both were largely agricultural societies. In 1980, only 19 per cent of the total population of China, and 22 per cent of the total population of Indonesia, inhabited cities; by 2005, the rates had reached 47 per cent and 43 per cent respectively. 1 But these percentages do not portray the precise dimension of the urbanization process, and the following

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Paul Frijters, Leng Lee and Xin Meng

relative to their urban counterparts? Are they competing in the same labour market? These are important policy issues, as well as being of academic interest. In the past, migrant workers faced discrimination with regard to the types of jobs they were allowed to take and the compensation packages they received (Meng and Zhang 2001). The Chinese government has moved to eliminate such discrimination but is facing resistance from local governments and employers. Local governments are expected to protect the employment and earnings of local people-not migrants. To achieve

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

percent, 36 percent, 29 percent, and 46 percent from 2011 according to data from multiple provincial data sources. HUKOU AND URBAN POPULATION GROWTH Population Growth in China There was very little difference in the growth rate between China’s urban and rural population during the Mao era. What did occur was mostly the result of natural increase. With reform and opening up in the early 1980s, as restrictions on migration were relaxed and demand for factory labor in cities exploded, tens of millions of former peasants migrated from farms and villages to cities and towns

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

, is grouped with Sichuan province. The four maps in Figure 4.1 display the results visually. At the beginning of reform and opening up, urbanization rates of all provinces except three provincial level municipalities in China were low. This contrasted sharply with urbanization rates in the three municipalities directly under the central government—Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai, all of which had urbanization rates higher than 50 percent at the time reform and opening began. The urbanization rates of the three northeastern provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning

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Understanding China's Urbanization

The Great Demographic, Spatial, Economic, and Social Transformation

Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

China’s urbanization is one of the great earth-changing phenomena of recent times. The way in which China continues to urbanize will have a critical impact on the world economy, global climate change, international relations and a host of other critical issues. Understanding and responding to China’s urbanization is of paramount importance to everyone. This book represents a unique exploration of the demographic, spatial, economic and social aspects of China’s urban transformation.
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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

though the population growth of many smaller developing countries is faster. For millennia China’s population has been distributed unevenly and during the last thirty years migration has accentuated the imbalance. Population clusters in the great river deltas, where there is fertile arable land, and areas that are accessible. The annual average growth rate of the urban population in a number of large city-egions has exceeded 5 percent. These densely agglomerated r city- egions are developing into Large City Clusters (hereafter LCCs) or r megalopolises. Most of the

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

an official town—the town proper; the latter to p ermanent residents of the town region. China had 19,683 official towns in 2011. The average population in a town seat was 12,500 and the average population in a town region was 44,000 (NBSC- ts, 2012). c In rural and urban censuses for the purposes of calculating China’s urbanization rate, official town seats are categorized as urban, and their 274 Understanding China’s urbanization residents are included in the urban population. Townships and rural regions of official towns are categorized as rural and their

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

village head elected by all villagers. There is also a party branch and a village secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) elected by local CCP members in each village and verified by a higher-evel party committee. In urban areas below the town, township, l and urban street level may be urban residential areas with neighborhood committees. An administrative village may include two or more natural villages—organic villages consisting of clusters of houses geographically close to each other and often with household members related by kinship, but which are not

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Li Zhang, Richard LeGates and Min Zhao

provinces that lost population 2000–2010 Population (millions) 2000 Fastest growing  Beijing  Shanghai  Tianjin  Guangdong  Zhejiang   Xizang  (Tibet)  Xinjiang  Ningxia Losing population  Gansu  Anhui  Guizhou  Sichuan  Hubei  Chongqing 2010 Population Average Natural Net Migration’s change annual increase migration share (millions) increase (millions) (millions) of change rate (%) (%) A+B 13.82 16.74 10.01 86.42 46.77 2.62 19.25 5.62 25.6 59.9 35.3 83.3 60.8 30.9 19.61 23.02 12.94 104.30 54.43 3.00 21.81 6.30 25.6 59.5 34.8 80.4 57.2 28.9 5.79 6.28 2.93 17.88 7.66 0