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Peter Karl Kresl and Earl H. Fry

in the interest of their farmers, labor, or companies. In Europe, the conflict between the growth and stability pact of the Monetary Union and rising unemployment in France, Germany and Italy has resulted in these three nation states thumbing their noses at the requirement that the budget deficit does not exceed 3 per cent of GDP. When push comes to shove, nation states awaken from their slumber and assert themselves as they always have and, most likely, always will. The self-imposed limitation on the action of national governments has shifted the responsibility and

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Peter Karl Kresl and Earl H. Fry

to enhance their competitiveness from the national or state/provincial levels of government. An additional difficulty in this area arises from the fact that in large nations the regional components of the national economy are so diverse in their needs for interest rate policy or counter-cyclical fiscal policy or international trade policy that no single approach to the specific policy will meet the needs of most of the cities. This is shown clearly in the efforts of the European Central Bank to design a monetary policy for Euroland and the difficulty the member nations

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Peter Karl Kresl and Earl H. Fry

addition to putting a symbolic end to a long history of conflict and war, these linkages are one effort toward the goal of creating a European identity or a sense of European-ness in the sensibilities of the residents of the cities that are involved. Recently the governments of Germany and France made explicit their interest in this initiative by establishing mandates in each country to increase instruction in the language of the other, to develop linkages between and among subnational entities in the two countries and, in the terms of the French minister for European

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Li Tian

producer (Jaèger, 2003). British classical political economist William Petty made a pioneering contribution to the theory of rent and developed a theory of value. Petty argued that all things ought to be valued by two natural denominations: land and labour. The natural rent of a land is the excess of what a labourer produces on it in a year over what he eats himself and trades for necessities (Petty, 1662). A representative of the French physiocratic school, Turgot, published his best- nown work, Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of k Wealth (Turgot, [1766

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Dan Silver, Terry Nichols Clark and Christopher Graziul

contribute to the creativity and growth of cities, and investigate what happens when we add scenes to the mix. We test our hypotheses about scenes in reference to classic and contemporary factors thought to drive urban development and innovation: education, technology, social climate, social density, artist concentrations and natural environment. Because these have received considerable attention, we briefly highlight them before beginning our discussion of scenes. Education Urban development has been linked with the consequences of the explosion of higher education in the

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Li Tian

difference is. The housing price index of affected property can be expressed as: Pi 5 P1 (1 1 r1)D1(1 1 r2)D2. . . (1 1 rn)Dn (4.2) where P1 is the initial transaction price; Pi is the ith transaction price; 1  1  rn is the cumulative index of appreciation at period of t; Dt is an 44 Property rights, land values and urban development exponent equal to −1 if period t is second most recent sale, 11 if it is the most recent sale, and 0 for all other t.2 To normalize the index, D1 is set equal to 0. Taking the natural log of (4.2) yields: LN(Pi /P1) 5 D1LN (1 1 r1) 1

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Philip S. Morrison

complex topography – has a palpable degree of physical, cultural and political separation from its wider urban hinterland. It is this feature which renders Wellington something of a natural experiment with which to consider the distributional impacts of building a creative city. I begin the chapter by reporting the conventional wisdom, the story line that accompanies the transformation of Wellington City into a highly creative city. I then turn to the social geography of the larger Wellington Region, of which Wellington City is the economic core although only a minor

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Arielle John and Virgil Henry Storr

slave in a minister’s antechamber’ but simultaneously denigrated the ‘great merchant who enriches his country . . . and contributes to the well-being of the world’ (Voltaire, [1733] 2003, p. 40). Why then did France privilege the ‘well-powdered lord’ over ‘the great merchant’? He claimed that English merchants, operating in an arena in which they were free to act in their economic self-interest, found it desirable to cast aside their religious and class prejudices in order to maximize economic benefits. In order to transact profitable business, Voltaire recognized

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Peter Jason Rentfrow

about. And finally, how can psychology inform our understanding of creative cities? There is growing interest in creative cities, and because creativity is a psychological construct, it is important to investigate whether traits associated with psychological creativity are common in creative cities. Thus, this chapter is a first attempt at informing researchers about the connections between place and psychology with the aim of initiating further research in this area. 117 M2689 - ANDERSSON PRINT.indd 117 28/07/2011 11:59 118 Handbook of creative cities ARE THERE

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Philip McCann

European nations, and even a well-working Single Market in which all member states can gain, still exhibits particular situations or contexts in which adjustment challenges can be very real, and cannot be easily overcome simply by the natural workings of the market mechanism. Moreover, as well as significant international differences in wealth and income, there were also significant interregional income and productivity inequalities even within some of the richer countries, and some of these intranational interregional inequalities were even greater than the