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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

Preface For more than 15 years China has maintained a breathtaking rate of economic growth, averaging almost 10 per cent per annum. This growth has propelled China’s energy demand to the point where a country that was a net exporter of oil in the 1970s cannot now meet its domestic needs from its own natural resources. Indeed, today’s price of a barrel of oil ($60+) is attributed by some, perhaps unfairly, to the unanticipated demands that China has been making on the world oil market in recent years. China is a country that in some respects is today not unlike

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China and the Global Energy Crisis

Development and Prospects for China’s Oil and Natural Gas

Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

This book examines China’s record of oil and gas development, its refining capacity, and energy prospects. The authors conclude that there are no fundamental reasons for anxiety about China’s demands on the world energy economy, but they emphasize that its energy future will depend critically on a continuation of reform and internationalization. China and the Global Energy Crisis is a concise but detailed study of these issues.
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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

.5 billion has been suggested for 2010. At these rates of extraction, considerable further investment in survey and exploration work will be needed if the reserves:output ratio is to be held at comfortable levels. Transportation of natural gas in the Sichuan Basin relies heavily on a trunk pipeline some 1000 km in length. This major pipeline forms a ring circuit that connects the major fields with the centres of consumption and processing in the cities. This circuit in turn supports a maze of smaller distributive pipelines totalling 10 000 km in length. Approximately 60 per

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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

local oil royalty rate, which has made it the richest of all American states measured in terms of local fiscal revenue. At present, the Xinjiang government benefits from oil and gas development only through the local tax on production-sharing agreements involving foreign companies. There is no parallel to the Alaskan royalty payments, which would of course greatly increase the capacity of the local administration to stimulate economic development. Moreover, under the State Council regulations for the protection of petroleum and natural gas pipelines, the Chinese central

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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

natural gas in Sichuan Province. This was transported through bamboo pipes and burnt in the process of extracting salt from underground wells of salt water. The first known use of the term we now use for oil – shiyou – was over 900 years ago, since when the term has been common usage in both China and Japan (see Photograph 1.1). In the modern age oil became of major importance when, in the form of kerosene, it began to be widely used as a lighting fuel. Western oil companies rushed to this new Asian market, importing large quantities of kerosene into both India and China

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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

estimates of domestic output it is likely that China’s imports of crude oil and oil products will need to rise to 138 mmt and 48 mmt respectively by 2010, lowering the oil self-sufficiency rate to 46 per cent as compared to 71 per cent in 2000. The sources of these imports will have an important bearing on plans for the refinery sector. In the year 2000, the first and second largest sources of imports to China were Oman and Angola. These supplied 22.2 per cent and 12.3 per cent of total imports respectively. Iran and Saudi Arabia took the next two places with shares of 10 per

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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

sought a route for this massive project that went through Mongolia and involved Mongolian participation, the Chinese preferred a route that by-passes Mongolia and follows the route of the Trans-Siberian railway. This would enter China at the old frontier station at Manzhouli, pass through the three north-eastern Chinese provinces, and then proceed to Beijing. The Korean interest in this consortium will be supplied by a pipeline routed to Korea under the Bohai Gulf. A major role in natural gas supply is also planned for the central Asian Republics of Turkmenistan

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Tatsu Kambara and Christopher Howe

totalled 4.67 billion tonnes, which was later increased to something in excess of 5 billion tonnes. If the ultimate recovery rate can be raised to 50 per cent, then estimated ultimate recovery would be 2.5 billion tonnes. However, by the end of 2005, 1.9 billion tonnes had already been taken, leaving only 610 mmt in place. If a more conservative ultimate recovery rate of 40 per cent is adopted, it seems likely that the remaining recoverable reserves as of 2005 were only 100 mmt. As well as oil, Daqing produces significant volumes of natural gas. To date, this gas has only