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Hilary Charlesworth

JOBNAME: EE0 d’Aspremont PAGE: 1 SESS: 4 OUTPUT: Wed Jan 30 08:58:14 2019 12. Democracy Hilary Charlesworth* 1. INTRODUCTION International lawyers long avoided the concept of democracy, leaving it to political scientists, philosophers and international relations theorists. This reticence may have been produced by understandings of sovereignty that discouraged investigation of states’ internal political arrangements.1 The end of the Cold War in the 1990s and the apparent triumph of democracy over other forms of government prompted extensive engagement with the

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Frank Fischer

38.  Environmental democracy Frank Fischer Climate crisis is the challenge of this century, threatening to throw the world as we know it into social and political turmoil. Countless studies regularly predict massive hunger around the world, destructive storms and flooding, lack of drinkable water, new patterns of diseases, waves of desperate people migrating in search of livable conditions, growing levels of social turbulence, violent protests and more (Dyer 2010; Raskin et al. 2002). These issues raise critical questions for contemporary political systems

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Brian Christopher Jones

5. Invigorating democracies?1 A focus on constitutional performance has on many occasions touched on or insinuated a relationship between constitutions and voter turnout. Dixon and Landau state that a competitive democracy requires a ‘minimum core of a democratic constitution’ to endure if a constitution is to be successful, emphasising the democratic vote.2 Hardin also argues that constitutions can (or should) provide for the successful coordination of society and politics.3 Ginsburg and Huq take these arguments further, stressing that ‘in democratic contexts

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Simon James

A method of government where the power resides with the people and is exercised by them either directly or by means of elected representatives. Such a political organisation may have implications for the type of tax system employed. Further reading Braithwaite , V. (ed.) ( 2003 ), Taxing Democracy: Understanding Tax Avoidance and Evasion , Aldershot : Ashgate

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Connie de la Vega

A system of government that includes the participation of its citizens. While international human rights instruments do not contain provisions guaranteeing democracy, they do provide for public participation in government and voting rights, including fair elections and the right to hold office and have access to public service. While the Human Rights Committee has not guaranteed the right to direct participation, it has issued a General Comment that provides that whatever political system a government has selected, it must ensure the effective

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Laura Westra

13. The quest for democracy Laura Westra Confronting the body of Ron Engel’s work − be it in its environmental context or in its efforts to support the fleshing out and full clarification of the Earth Charter in all its implications − we come across his strong belief in democracy as one of the most important values in the life of humanity. Engel cites an authoritative historical study of democracy: ‘Why is democracy today the overwhelmingly dominant, and increasingly the well-nigh exclusive claimant to set the standard for legitimate political authority? It

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Thinking of political democracy

A Constitutional Political Economy Approach

John M. Mbaku

Protecting Minority Rights in African Countries 10.   Thinking of political democracy 10.1    INTRODUCTION In most of the chapters in this book, the word “democracy” is used generously. Unfortunately, that term has not been properly defined and no attempt has been made to show its connection to governance in divided societies generally and the protection of minority rights in particular. Specifically, how does democracy relate to the management of ethnocultural diversity and the protection of the rights of minorities, especially in Africa? In

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Defining Landscape Democracy

A Path to Spatial Justice

Edited by Shelley Egoz, Karsten Jørgensen and Deni Ruggeri

This stimulating book explores theories, conceptual frameworks, and cultural approaches with the purpose of uncovering a cross-cultural understanding of landscape democracy, a concept at the intersection of landscape, democracy and spatial justice. The authors of Defining Landscape Democracy address a number of questions that are critical to the contemporary discourse on the right to landscape: Why is democracy relevant to landscape? How do we democratise landscape? How might we achieve landscape and spatial justice?
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Sarah Ayres

18.  Regional governance and democracy Sarah Ayres 18.1  INTRODUCTION The aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between regional governance and democracy. Enhancing local democracy is often cited as one of the motivations behind regionalism, alongside efforts to boost economic development and transform public services. Many scholars associate regional governance with improving the legitimacy and accountability of political institutions and fostering political participation (EscobarLemmon and Ross 2014; Wills 2016), promoting the growth of regional

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Angela M. Eikenberry

12. Social entrepreneurship and democracy Angela M. Eikenberry INTRODUCTION The market pervades more and more facets of our lives (Sandel, 2012). Lifestyles are created around brands and logos (Klein, 2002), the poor are considered a market niche (Prahalad, 2006) and consumerism is recognized as a key form of political and civic action (Beck, 2005; King, 2006), in an environment where public spaces have either disappeared or been ‘made safe for shopping’ (Ferrell, 2001). Even the philanthropic impulse is increasingly marketized (Hawkins, 2012; King, 2006; Nickel