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Mary R. Brooks

When the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect in 1994, it promised new trade opportunities, significantly improved access to the Mexican market for Canadian and United States exports, and increased total trade through the phased elimination of tariffs over ten years. In addition to the promise of more goods to carry by virtue of freer trade in goods, NAFTA provided a timetable for the removal of standards-related barriers, in particular with respect to the provision of land transport services between NAFTA countries. The three countries

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Norris C. Clement, Gustavo del Castillo Vera, James Gerber, William A. Kerr, Alan J. MacFayden, Stanford Shedd, Eduardo Zepeda and Diana Alarcón

Page 279  8. NAFTA and Beyond  In previous chapters we developed the theory and history underlying NAFTA's creation. Then we examined the content of the agreement itself and its two side  agreements. Now we turn to the question of how NAFTA is working in practice since its implementation in January 1994 and speculate on where it might go in the  future. Given the complexity of the agreement and its many economic, social and environmental implications, we will limit our discussion to those topics which we  believe have most relevance to the readers.  In

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R. Quentin Grafton, Harry W. Nelson, N. Ross Lambie and Paul R. Wyrwoll

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Gregorio Vidal

1 INTRODUCTION In the 2 decades since NAFTA took effect, the economy of Mexico has undergone an important transformation. The negotiation and approval of NAFTA took place in a period in which the discourse of free trade and the optimal allocation of resources through market forces held complete dominance. NAFTA was defended on the grounds of ideas regarding economic integration, understood as the ‘removal of artificial barriers that obstruct continuous economic activity through national frontiers’ ( Balassa 1961a , p. 3), which consequently implied the relocation

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Patrick Dumberry

A GUIDE TO STATE SUCCESSION IN INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT LAW 8 ONE (HYPOTHETICAL) ILLUSTRATION OF SUCCESSION TO MULTILATERAL TREATIES: THE CASE OF NAFTA AND QUEBEC’S SECESSION 8.01  More than a decade ago, a debate about succession to the NAFTA 46 emerged in the context of the potential secession of Quebec. 47 Once elected into government in 1994, the Parti Québécois (pro-independence) proposed a Draft Bill on the Sovereignty of Quebec as a platform of the position of an independent Quebec in matters of foreign policy

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2014 marks the 20th anniversary of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, the United States and Mexico. The accord aimed to liberalize trade and investment, and in the process create one of the largest trading blocs in the world. But NAFTA almost wasn’t. While the agreement was signed by George W. Bush, Brian Mulroney and Carlos Salinas in 1992, it still needed to be ratified by each country’s legislative assemblies. Yet, during this time, some governments changed, potentially derailing the accord. In Canada in particular, the Federal

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Norris C. Clement, Gustavo del Castillo Vera, James Gerber, William A. Kerr, Alan J. MacFayden, Stanford Shedd, Eduardo Zepeda and Diana Alarcón

Page 5  1. NAFTA in the Global Context.  Readers of this book are conscious of a trend toward increasing internationalization the of economic life as imported goods flood national markets and foreign  corporations become more noticeable. People involved in business have also become aware of the growing importance of international economic organizations such as  the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) which have been created to coordinate the global economy. The North American  Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA

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Rafael Leal-Arcas

14. Comparison between the WTO and NAFTA Because of the political nature of WTO and NAFT A disputes, the rules yield benefits and drawbacks for parties involved in each system. This chapter will look at some factors that determine the effectiveness of the system by examining each of the potential advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of the winning and losing parties. 1.WTO 1.1. Advantages 1.1.1. Losing respondent While the losing party is constrained by the detailed series of rules under the DSU, one advantage of the system is that it has a variety

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Robert E. Scott

1 INTRODUCTION Between 1993 and 2013, the US trade deficit with Mexico and Canada increased from $17.0 to $177.2 billion, displacing 851 700 US jobs. All of the net jobs displaced were due to growing trade deficits with Mexico. The number of US jobs displaced by trade deficits with Canada declined slightly between 1993 and 2013. Prominent economists and US government officials predicted that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) would lead to growing trade surpluses with Mexico and that hundreds of thousands of jobs would be gained (President Clinton

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M. Dutta

Page 269  29  The North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA)  Following fast track action by the President and Congress of the United States and parallel actions by Canada and Mexico, the North American Free Trade Area of  the three sovereign economies became operational on January 1, 1994. Indeed, it broadened the Free Trade Area Agreement of Canada and the United States, signed  in 1988, effective from January 1, 1989. The only other Free Trade Area Agreement the United States had signed was with Israel in 1985. The U.S.­Isreal Agreement  is