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Peter Groves

In the world of real property, commons are areas of land available for all to use. By extension, in the copyright world ‘commons’ designate property whose owner is prepared to allow them to be used liberally by others, leading to a general increase in creative activity. See Creative Commons . See also anticommons .

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Klaus Bosselmann

3. Commons Technology can unite and it can divide. It can elevate and it can degrade. It can create a new civilization of abundance, it may destroy all civilization and life on this globe. . . At stake is the survival of man himself. Arvid Pardo, 19721 1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays when we hear the word wealth we automatically think of money. How can we not? Champions of the ‘market’ have ascribed monetary value to everything, transforming our view of nature and its resources. This has been done with little attention to the costs of human impact on the environment

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Robert Cunningham

JOBNAME: Cunningham PAGE: 1 SESS: 3 OUTPUT: Tue Aug 26 13:38:43 2014 4. Information commons If particulars are to have meaning, there must be universals. Plato 4.1 INTRODUCTION Part I underscored the exclusivity costs associated with the IPR system such as efficiency costs, administration costs, externality costs and distributional costs. There will be instances where benefits of propertisation may outweigh costs, and instances where this will not be the case, although it may be difficult to make this determination with absolute certainty. Here, a social net

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Peter Groves

1. A non-profit organisation, established in the USA in 2001, dedicated to increasing the range of creative works available for others to use, share and build upon. It starts from the premise that creativity will be served if copyright works are licensed on a liberal basis, and promulgates licences designed to do this. Copyright owners who use Creative Commons licences (indicated by an encircled double-c symbol) can choose what rights they wish to retain under their control. It uses the techniques of copyleft for this purpose. The co-founders of Creative

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Reinventing law for the commons

Sustainable, Just, and Democratic

David Bollier

7. Reinventing law for the commons David Bollier I. INTRODUCTION Although it is customary for mainstream economists and politicians to consider the commons a failed management regime – the “tragedy of the commons” – it is in fact a pervasive and highly generative system for meeting people’s needs. Commons tend to function in more culturally satisfying, ecologically responsible ways, which is more than can be said for conventional markets and government systems. An estimated two billion people in the world depend upon various natural resource commons (water

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Jyh-An Lee

2. Commons, intellectual commons, and their tragedies Public goods are defined in terms of two properties: non-rivalrousness in consumption and non-excludability.1 Non-rivalry means that one’s consumption of a public good does not reduce the amount available to others.2 The marginal cost of an additional consumption of such a good is zero.3 Non-excludability, on the other hand, means that no particular group of people can be excluded from using the goods.4 Pure public goods possess the above two properties – non-rivalry in consumption and non

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Janelle Orsi

6. Three legal principles for organizations rebuilding the commons Janelle Orsi I.  INTRODUCTION: ECONOMICS FOR LIFE Social movements benefit from slogans, so here’s one for the next economy: “Trees don’t grow on money.” The older conventional “wisdom” tells us that “money doesn’t grow on trees”, and, thus, we are urged to get to work, buy property, invest, and generate money. In industrial societies, wealth accumulation has become a popular strategy for survival. But if survival, or life, itself, is the ultimate goal, why not cut to the chase and simply focus on

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Shalanda H. Baker

10. Unlocking the energy commons: expanding community energy generation Shalanda H. Baker I. INTRODUCTION In 2016, in at least 14 states around the United States, legislators have provided viable pathways to community participation in “community solar” and “community energy” programs.1 Paradoxically, just as the market for energy generation expands to allow for broader community participation, the country is simultaneously witnessing the sweeping retrenchment of net energy metering (NEM) programs, which allow ordinary consumers of electricity to receive economic

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R. Quentin Grafton, Harry W. Nelson, N. Ross Lambie and Paul R. Wyrwoll

See commons, tragedy of .

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Anthony J. Culyer

See Tragedy of the Commons .