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Peter Groves

In the world of real property, commons are areas of land available for all to use. By extension, in the copyright world ‘commons’ designate property whose owner is prepared to allow them to be used liberally by others, leading to a general increase in creative activity. See Creative Commons . See also anticommons .

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Klaus Bosselmann

3. Commons Technology can unite and it can divide. It can elevate and it can degrade. It can create a new civilization of abundance, it may destroy all civilization and life on this globe. . . At stake is the survival of man himself. Arvid Pardo, 19721 1. INTRODUCTION Nowadays when we hear the word wealth we automatically think of money. How can we not? Champions of the ‘market’ have ascribed monetary value to everything, transforming our view of nature and its resources. This has been done with little attention to the costs of human impact on the environment

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Robert Cunningham

JOBNAME: Cunningham PAGE: 1 SESS: 3 OUTPUT: Tue Aug 26 13:38:43 2014 4. Information commons If particulars are to have meaning, there must be universals. Plato 4.1 INTRODUCTION Part I underscored the exclusivity costs associated with the IPR system such as efficiency costs, administration costs, externality costs and distributional costs. There will be instances where benefits of propertisation may outweigh costs, and instances where this will not be the case, although it may be difficult to make this determination with absolute certainty. Here, a social net

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Peter Groves

1. A non-profit organisation, established in the USA in 2001, dedicated to increasing the range of creative works available for others to use, share and build upon. It starts from the premise that creativity will be served if copyright works are licensed on a liberal basis, and promulgates licences designed to do this. Copyright owners who use Creative Commons licences (indicated by an encircled double-c symbol) can choose what rights they wish to retain under their control. It uses the techniques of copyleft for this purpose. The co-founders of Creative

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Jyh-An Lee

2. Commons, intellectual commons, and their tragedies Public goods are defined in terms of two properties: non-rivalrousness in consumption and non-excludability.1 Non-rivalry means that one’s consumption of a public good does not reduce the amount available to others.2 The marginal cost of an additional consumption of such a good is zero.3 Non-excludability, on the other hand, means that no particular group of people can be excluded from using the goods.4 Pure public goods possess the above two properties – non-rivalry in consumption and non

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R. Quentin Grafton, Harry W. Nelson, N. Ross Lambie and Paul R. Wyrwoll

See commons, tragedy of .

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Anthony J. Culyer

See Tragedy of the Commons .

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R. Quentin Grafton, Harry W. Nelson, N. Ross Lambie and Paul R. Wyrwoll

A term popularized by Garett Hardin in his 1968 paper of the same name. The tragedy of the commons is the biological and economic over-exploitation of common-pool resources (CPRs) when there exists no property rights by users over a CPR, or flow of benefits from a CPR. See common-pool resource . FURTHER READING Hardin ( 1968 ).

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Enrico Bertacchini, Giangiacomo Bravo, Massimo Marrelli and Walter Santagata

1. Defining cultural commons Enrico Bertacchini, Giangiacomo Bravo, Massimo Marrelli and Walter Santagata 1 INTRODUCTION Cultural commons refer to cultures expressed and shared by a community. Cultures can be generally recognized as systems of intellectual resources that have an idiosyncratic nature. They are indissolubly dependent on both the evolving conditions of time and the spatial contexts in which human relations take place. Symbols, styles, knowledge, beliefs, rites, customs and techniques all contribute to the making of different tangible and

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Anthony J. Culyer

A term attributable to the ecologist Garrett Hardin. Common grazing land (‘the commons’) is of value to farmers, each of whom gain from grazing their flocks on it without charge but the more each grazes it the less grazing there is. The tragedy arises when the land (or any other common property resource – fisheries are another classic case) is entirely destroyed or used up. One solution may be to substitute private and exchangeable property for public property. Another may be for a public authority to own it and ration its use through prices or some other