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John Turnpenny, Duncan Russel, Andrew Jordan, Alan Bond and William R. Sheate

13. Environment1 John Turnpenny, Duncan Russel, Andrew Jordan, Alan Bond and William R. Sheate 13.1 INTRODUCTION Compared to other policy areas, environmental problems cut across physical and human boundaries, and attempts to address them directly impact on many other sectoral policy areas. Environmental problems are characterized by uncertainty, about the nature and extent of the problems themselves, about what policies to adopt and when, and how to structure institutional arrangements. The presence of strong interest groups acting to protect institutional

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George Norman and Darlene C. Chisholm

The environment within which a business operates, defined by the technology, market structure and regulations that the firm faces.

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Kim Mannemar Sønderskov

15 The environment Kim Mannemar Sønderskov Introduction Social capital helps solve collective action problems. In the presence of social capital, groups of actors are able to cooperate and provide collective goods not provided in other groups. That is the main message from the growing literature on social capital (Coleman, 1990: ch. 12; Putnam, 1993: ch. 6, 2000: ch. 16; Uslaner, 1999; Paldam and Svendsen, 2000; Ostrom and Ahn, 2003; Rothstein, 2005: ch. 1; Nannestad, this volume). Collective action problems arise in association with provision of nonexcludable

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G. M.P. Swann

17. Natural Environment Chapter 16 was concerned with common innovation by an individual or a small group of individuals: the final consumer(s) in the home. This chapter is mainly concerned with common innovation by larger organisations – often public sector or third sector. There is an element in common but a difference in scale. Final consumers use common innovation to make a pleasant environment in their gardens, while the organisations of this chapter use common innovation to make a pleasant environment from much larger areas of land. While the examples of

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Connie de la Vega

While this right was not included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it can be inferred as a right emanating from the right to life and the right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. Many national constitutions include language recognizing various aspects of the importance of a healthy environment, either as a right, or by placing a duty on the State to protect it. The international community addressed environmental rights for the first time in 1972 at the UN Conference on the Human Environment, where the

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Colin Jones and Gimme Walter

3. What is an environment? Environment is infinitely complex, never quite the same for any two living creatures; it is ever present, never to be entirely known or estimated; it is modified by the beings whom it modifies, in an endless and never wholly calculable reciprocity. (MacIver, 1917: 364–365) Environment is highly complex and integrated, but this should not be a matter for despair, for environments are probably still less complex than organisms! (Daubenmire, 1947: 342) Before we begin, it is worth taking the time to read each of the above selected

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Colin Jones

6. The Learning Environment Having contemplated the nature of student diversity occurring naturally in our learning environments, and contemplating its worth, let us now consider in more detail the dynamics of the learning environment. Specifically, let us pause to reflect upon the elements that interact so as to enable learning to occur. It has been five years since I contemplated this issue. 1 On that first occasion, to considerable mixed reaction, 2 I pondered the extent to which students could be co-architects of the learning environments they experience

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Maja Konečnik Ruzzier, Mitja Ruzzier and Robert D. Hisrich

5. Analyzing the marketing environment LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to: ● Understand the characteristics of the environment in the 21st century ● Identify what constitutes a micro environment of a company ● Understand the importance of studying factors at the macro level ● Interpret the role of entrepreneurs in coping with changes in the environment I was a successful entrepreneur. I ran a family-­owned business as the second generation. I had a photo studio and a shop with six employees, one of whom was my wife. I

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Edited by David Alexander Clark

164 Environment and development Environment and Development In his book Human Well-being and the Natural Environment, Partha Dasgupta remarks that he has long drawn attention to the neglect by development economists of environmental economics and he also alleges that environmental economics has made ‘no contact with poverty in poor countries’. ‘The two fields of specialisations had passed each other by and had weakened in consequence’ (Dasgupta, 2001, p. viii). The former judgement has certainly been correct as far as the academic literature on development

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Michikazu Kojima and Etsuyo Michida

18. Trade and the environment Michikazu Kojima and Etsuyo Michida 18.1 INTRODUCTION Continued prosperity throughout the course of economic integration in East Asia depends on the environmental consequences. If the increase in trade and investment flow results in environmental degradation that poses serious threats to health, amenities, and productivity, fear of further integration might be spawned. The growth of East Asian economies has been accompanied by pollution, global warming, waste generation, deforestation, losses in biodiversity, and so on. Does