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John Turnpenny, Duncan Russel, Andrew Jordan, Alan Bond and William R. Sheate

13. Environment1 John Turnpenny, Duncan Russel, Andrew Jordan, Alan Bond and William R. Sheate 13.1 INTRODUCTION Compared to other policy areas, environmental problems cut across physical and human boundaries, and attempts to address them directly impact on many other sectoral policy areas. Environmental problems are characterized by uncertainty, about the nature and extent of the problems themselves, about what policies to adopt and when, and how to structure institutional arrangements. The presence of strong interest groups acting to protect institutional

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Geert Van Calster and Leonie Reins

EU Environmental Law 17.  Trade and the environment I.  INTRODUCTION “Trade and environment” now has a familiar sound to it. It refers to the need for, and the challenges of, reconciling ever freer international trade, with the prerequisites of environmental protection. The debate has its origins in the apparent contradiction between two premises. Some argue that free international trade is a precondition for realising such aims as environmental protection and social progress. In this view, the fruits of the economic axiom of free trade, namely the

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Macroeconomics and the Environment

Essays on Green Accounting

Salah El Serafy

Though scientists and environmentalists have long expressed concern over the rapid deterioration of the global environment, economists have largely failed to recognize the issue’s relevance to their field. Salah El Serafy argues for an increased focus on the economic aspects of environmental degradation, calling for a fundamental shift in how economists measure and discuss national income.
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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

Teaching Leadership 5.  The learning environment Educators face an exciting challenge for creating program experiences that will foster the personal and professional growth of their learners, both now and into their future. The first step is to shape an optimal environment for teaching leadership. Above all, educators should aim to empower learners with a goal of nurturing, enhancing, and sharpening an evolving leadership mindset. Creating a learning environment necessitates an understanding of the interrelationship between the educator, learners, the

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Sharon Clarke

16.  A safe workplace environment Sharon Clarke There is a wide range of factors, including individual, group, organizational, environmental, legal and regulatory aspects, that influence the safeness of work environments. Significant developments in legal and regulatory frameworks in many countries have provided safeguards to employees in the workplace. Such developments, together with improvements brought about through new technology, automation and safety systems, have led to further reductions in workplace accidents, fatalities and lost-­time injuries

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Robert H. Scott

17. Rethinking the environment Robert H. Scott INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses a fundamental concept in economics regarding the environment that needs rethinking, that is, economic growth. Growth is the most common solution offered to solve economic problems. If a country has too much poverty, high unemployment and high income inequality – all can be solved with more economic growth. This mantra of economic growth becomes pathological and the only thing people focus on when thinking about an economy (see Cutler and Katz, 1991; Stiglitz et al., 2010). Since

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George Norman and Darlene C. Chisholm

The environment within which a business operates, defined by the technology, market structure and regulations that the firm faces.

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Kim Mannemar Sønderskov

15 The environment Kim Mannemar Sønderskov Introduction Social capital helps solve collective action problems. In the presence of social capital, groups of actors are able to cooperate and provide collective goods not provided in other groups. That is the main message from the growing literature on social capital (Coleman, 1990: ch. 12; Putnam, 1993: ch. 6, 2000: ch. 16; Uslaner, 1999; Paldam and Svendsen, 2000; Ostrom and Ahn, 2003; Rothstein, 2005: ch. 1; Nannestad, this volume). Collective action problems arise in association with provision of nonexcludable

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G. M.P. Swann

17. Natural Environment Chapter 16 was concerned with common innovation by an individual or a small group of individuals: the final consumer(s) in the home. This chapter is mainly concerned with common innovation by larger organisations – often public sector or third sector. There is an element in common but a difference in scale. Final consumers use common innovation to make a pleasant environment in their gardens, while the organisations of this chapter use common innovation to make a pleasant environment from much larger areas of land. While the examples of

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Human Security and the Environment

International Comparisons

Edited by Edward A. Page and Michael R. Redclift

In the post-Cold War era, the pre-eminent threats to our security derive from human degradation of vital ecosystems as well as the possibility of war and terrorist attack. This substantial book examines this new ‘security-environment’ paradigm and the way in which the activities of societies are shifting the balance with nature. The distinguished authors investigate this redefinition of security with particular reference to environmental threats such as climate change and the availability of adequate supplies of food and water. They illustrate how unfettered economic growth, rising levels of personal consumption and unsustainable natural resource and energy procurement are taking a heavy toll on the global environment.