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John Turnpenny, Duncan Russel, Andrew Jordan, Alan Bond and William R. Sheate

13. Environment1 John Turnpenny, Duncan Russel, Andrew Jordan, Alan Bond and William R. Sheate 13.1 INTRODUCTION Compared to other policy areas, environmental problems cut across physical and human boundaries, and attempts to address them directly impact on many other sectoral policy areas. Environmental problems are characterized by uncertainty, about the nature and extent of the problems themselves, about what policies to adopt and when, and how to structure institutional arrangements. The presence of strong interest groups acting to protect institutional

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Geert Van Calster and Leonie Reins

EU Environmental Law 17.  Trade and the environment I.  INTRODUCTION “Trade and environment” now has a familiar sound to it. It refers to the need for, and the challenges of, reconciling ever freer international trade, with the prerequisites of environmental protection. The debate has its origins in the apparent contradiction between two premises. Some argue that free international trade is a precondition for realising such aims as environmental protection and social progress. In this view, the fruits of the economic axiom of free trade, namely the

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Colin Jones

2. Know Your Activity Environment Environment pierces to the very heart of life. If we probe to the beginnings of life, it is there no less intimately dependent on environment than in its completest manifestations. We never find and never can conceive life pure, unenvironed. (MacIver, 1917: 361) All students experience learning environments, whose form we influence, with similar degrees of misperception. Unlike practically all other living organisms on the planet, our students do not arrive complete with sensory abilities honed to pre-set environments, they

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Macroeconomics and the Environment

Essays on Green Accounting

Salah El Serafy

Though scientists and environmentalists have long expressed concern over the rapid deterioration of the global environment, economists have largely failed to recognize the issue’s relevance to their field. Salah El Serafy argues for an increased focus on the economic aspects of environmental degradation, calling for a fundamental shift in how economists measure and discuss national income.
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Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall

Teaching Leadership 5.  The learning environment Educators face an exciting challenge for creating program experiences that will foster the personal and professional growth of their learners, both now and into their future. The first step is to shape an optimal environment for teaching leadership. Above all, educators should aim to empower learners with a goal of nurturing, enhancing, and sharpening an evolving leadership mindset. Creating a learning environment necessitates an understanding of the interrelationship between the educator, learners, the

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Sharon Clarke

16.  A safe workplace environment Sharon Clarke There is a wide range of factors, including individual, group, organizational, environmental, legal and regulatory aspects, that influence the safeness of work environments. Significant developments in legal and regulatory frameworks in many countries have provided safeguards to employees in the workplace. Such developments, together with improvements brought about through new technology, automation and safety systems, have led to further reductions in workplace accidents, fatalities and lost-­time injuries

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Robert H. Scott

17. Rethinking the environment Robert H. Scott INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses a fundamental concept in economics regarding the environment that needs rethinking, that is, economic growth. Growth is the most common solution offered to solve economic problems. If a country has too much poverty, high unemployment and high income inequality – all can be solved with more economic growth. This mantra of economic growth becomes pathological and the only thing people focus on when thinking about an economy (see Cutler and Katz, 1991; Stiglitz et al., 2010). Since

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Martin R. Sers and Peter A. Victor

6 Macroeconomics and the environment Martin R. Sers and Peter A. Victor 6.1  The context in which environmental economics operates To understand what type of environmental economic theory to develop, one must begin with a realistic appraisal of the numerous environmental challenges and physical conditions facing economies. The current trajectory of aggregate human impact on the Earth-system may lead, via tipping points in various biogeophysical processes, to the transition of the Earth-system from the current inter-glacial state to a potentially much less

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Jie Chen

The Overseas Chinese Democracy Movement 2.    Deteriorating operational environment From a robust start and upsurge towards the mid-1990s, the exile movement faced an increasingly arduous operational environment. Adapting the study of diaspora politics as a broad discursive framework, this chapter analyses the shifts of the crucial strategic factors which have shaped the broad parameters of the dissidents’ more chequered struggle from the late 1990s. Such factors include the movement’s relations with Western host states, China’s anti-exile strategy

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George Norman and Darlene C. Chisholm

The environment within which a business operates, defined by the technology, market structure and regulations that the firm faces.