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R. Quentin Grafton, Harry W. Nelson, N. Ross Lambie and Paul R. Wyrwoll

Anthropogenic attempts to change global environmental systems, particularly in response to climate change. The increasing interest in geoengineering has followed greater comprehension of the risks posed by catastrophic climate change and the absence of substantial international mitigation. Proposals have included: release of reflective material in the atmosphere; mirrors placed in the Earth’s orbit; ships spraying saltwater to promote cloud formation; air scrubbers; and iron fertilization of the oceans to encourage growth of carbon dioxide consuming plankton

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Karen N. Scott

JOBNAME: Rayfuse PAGE: 1 SESS: 4 OUTPUT: Fri Sep 25 14:47:38 2015 21. Geoengineering and the marine environment Karen N. Scott 1. INTRODUCTION Climate change arguably constitutes the greatest long-term threat to the health of our oceans. The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report on Climate Change (Working Group I) concludes that it is virtually certain that the upper ocean (above 700 m) has warmed between 1971 and 2010, and that it is likely that this trend began in the 1870s.1 Moreover, the Report also indicates that climate change has likely impacted upon ocean

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Sam Adelman

1 INTRODUCTION Geoengineering is the ‘deliberate, large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment in order to counteract anthropogenic climate change’. 1 The term refers to a diverse range of techniques commonly divided into solar radiation management (SRM) techniques and carbon dioxide removal (CDR). SRM techniques are designed to reflect sunlight back into space through the injection of sulphate particles into the stratosphere (to simulate volcanic eruptions – the so-called Pinatubo effect), marine cloud brightening, space-based mirrors, terrestrial and

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Jack Stilgoe

17.  Shared space and slow science in geoengineering research Jack Stilgoe INTRODUCTION: ON EXHIBITION ROAD Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London, is a vestige of Britain’s imperial past. Its route through ‘Albertopolis’, the part of the city named after Queen Victoria’s husband, who used money from the Great Exhibition of 1851 to purchase the land, runs between a pair of monuments to what C.P. Snow (1956) called ‘the Two Cultures’. Heading up Exhibition Road towards Hyde Park, you see on your left the Science Museum. Opposite is the Victoria and Albert

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David Humphreys

35 The global politics of geoengineering David Humphreys In August 2010 the Oxford University Press announced the words that would appear for the first time in the latest edition of the Oxford Dictionary of English. Making its debut – alongside “credit crunch,” “microblogging,” and “vuvuzela” (the shrill horn that was the sound of the 2010 football World Cup) – was “geoengineering,” defined as “the deliberate large-scale manipulation of environmental process that affects the earth’s climate, in an attempt to counteract the effects of global warming.”1 While its

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Rafael Leal-Arcas

8. Geoengineering the climate and possible trade implications 8.1 INTRODUCTION Geoengineering relates to the manipulation of the natural habitat – including the marine environment – in order to somehow abate or counteract the effects of natural and anthropogenic climate change and global warming. Geoengineering also relates to the various strategies and techniques aimed at containing and, in some cases, reversing the effects of anthropogenic and other forms of environmental degradation. These strategies and techniques range from the fairly innocuous to the

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Jürgen Scheffran

15.  Energy, climate change and conflict: securitization of migration, mitigation and geoengineering Jürgen Scheffran* INTRODUCTION: FROM ENERGY SECURITY TO CLIMATE CONFLICTS In many of the world’s conflicts energy resources have been an influential factor (Singer 2008; Singer and Scheffran 2004). This is partly due to the dual nature of energy: while energy use is important for human life and society, a precondition for social development and economic prosperity, it may also cause risk, destruction and death. Physical power from energy can be converted into

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Jesse Reynolds

‘climate engineering’ or ‘geoengineering’ proposals are receiving growing attention and raise numerous legal questions, especially at the international level. This chapter introduces possible climate engineering methods, suggests why climate engineering is challenging for international environmental law and its scholars, briefly describes applicable international legal instruments, provides an overview of legal research to date – including proposals for future international regulation – and points towards opportunities for future explorations in the international law of

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Amy L. Fletcher

-extinction, geoengineering, and the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These issues emerge from the disparate fields of molecular biology, civil and environmental engineering, and astrobiology, respectively, but also converge with social scientific research agendas in the anticipatory governance of science and technology, the analysis of risk and uncertainty, and public engagement with science. They also invariably collide with the controversial concept of the Anthropocene, which holds that mankind has entered a new geological era, distinct from the Holocene, in which our

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Anders Hansson, Steve Rayner and Victoria Wibeck

36.  Climate engineering Anders Hansson, Steve Rayner and Victoria Wibeck INTRODUCTION Climate engineering, or geoengineering, defined by Britain’s Royal Society as ‘the deliberate large-­scale manipulation of the planet’s environment to counteract climate change’ (Royal Society 2009, p. 1) is receiving growing attention from both scientists and policymakers concerned with the slow progress of international negotiations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, scientists and climate activists seem sharply divided over the wisdom and practicality of